Why are false whites and bolettes more dangerous than amanitas
Experienced mushroom pickers claim that the most dangerous mushrooms are not amanita mushrooms, but poisonous twins of popular aspen mushrooms, boletus mushrooms, chanterelles and other edible mushrooms. The percentage of poisoning them consistently high.
In their genetic structure, fungi are closer to animals than to plants. This is what causes the appearance of false fungi. They are found everywhere, for example, in the USA - these are fake morels, in Italy - a false cesarian mushroom, in France - “fake truffles”. In Russia, almost all edible mushrooms have dangerous twins. Their difference from the most common, and therefore familiar species, lies in the cyclopeptide toxins they produce.
Better not to risk
Most often false mushrooms contain monomethylhydrazine, which causes severe forms of poisoning. In reality, the danger depends on the concentration of toxins, and it can be different - from deadly to subtle.
Take sulphureusIt belongs to slightly poisonous mushrooms, and after boiling, a brick-red foam-beetle generally acquires a medicinal effect. In Japan, it is even fried, pre-bleached.
In Karelia, too, there is a popular recipe for making these mushrooms with garlic and onions. However, experts still advise not to risk it. Among these false and conditionally poisonous mushrooms, there are real killers, which are almost impossible to guess.
It all depends on what kind of organic matter they feed. In addition, mushrooms perfectly absorb inorganic substances, for example, heavy metals. Meanwhile, two poisons, each of which belongs to weak toxins, together can give a strong poisoning.
False mushrooms and false fear
Beginner mushroom pickers look like inexperienced sappers. They go to the forest with sad and sometimes with apocalytic thoughts, “but what if I do not distinguish a real mushroom from a false one”. If in doubt, a small toxicity test can be done.
In the literature there are many useful tips. For example, in an acidic environment orange govorushki (false chanterelles) lose their orange color, turning into whitish lumps.Meanwhile, a real mushroom will never do this.
In fact, false chanterelles are extraordinarily beautiful, however, when they grow. But it is necessary to disrupt them, they immediately lose their photogenic appearance. Perhaps this is why their poisoning almost never occurs. But real milk mushrooms are different from false ones in that when pressing on the original's cap, it does not show a drop of milky color. Meanwhile, this liquid with a slight smell of coconut indicates the presence of muscarinic substances. Having eaten such a false weight, a person suffers for a long time with vomiting and diarrhea.
To determine the false fungus can be to taste. In particular, Tylopilus felleus, or in Russian, a gall fungus, depending on age, can resemble both a white mushroom, a boletus, and a boletus. Mushroom pickers call him a grub. It is also difficult to poison the poison with this mushroom, even after frying with other mushrooms.
The fact is that the whole dish immediately becomes incredibly bitter. In addition, this fungus often grows when others can not, that is, in dry weather. Having met in this case, the gall mushroom, like two drops of water similar to boletus, an inexperienced mushroom picker rejoices like a child, while the experienced will curse, they say, “what are you pretending to be edible.”
It is a pale toadstool. It is more poisonous than the red mushroom.It is even worse than the panther mushroom (Amanita pantherina). At the same time, it can be disguised as green russules and champignons. It can also be mistaken for a white float, which, after bleaching, is stewed and fried.
In fairness, most mushroom pickers can easily distinguish a toadstool from other mushrooms because of its unique leg length. At the same time, they will never tear off the Russula, if there is even a hint of a characteristic “ring” on it, and they will definitely give up champignon, which has bright plates. In any case, if there is any doubt, as in the case of a float, it is better to refuse to collect at all.
For those mushroom pickers who take this frivolously, the old-timers will tell in detail about the toxic effects of pale toadstools. It turns out that at first the liver and kidneys fail, then the capillaries of the walls of the heart and the stomach are destroyed, and at the end the brain swells. Doctors are usually powerless. After such a story on a halt, many newcomers immediately throw away the harvest. By the way, oncologists, working to transform some toadsins of the toadstool into a cure for cancer, became interested in this mushroom.