Where do herbivores take protein
“Vegetarians are not threatened with protein starvation; it’s hard to imagine a varied vegetarian diet that would not exceed the human protein requirement. ”
Paavo Ayrola, one of the best nutritionists of the 20th century.
"By sharing vegetables, grains and dairy products, most vegetarians get a double portion of protein per day."
Dr. F. Steir, Harvard University
The most common "problem" of people who think about switching to a vegetarian diet is providing the body with protein. Many people think that if they refuse meat dishes, they will experience a protein deficiency. Most often, people ask this very question: “Where do vegetarians take protein?
After all, protein and many essential amino acids are found only in meat products! ”Of course, this is an erroneous statement and an unnecessary question. You can answer it simply: "We take them from the same place, from where they get into the meat of animals - from vegetables and fruits."
Proteins are large molecules built from smaller ones - amino acids. There are 22 amino acids, while it is believed that several of them (8 adults and 9 in children) cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food or supplied by the intestinal microflora, therefore they are called "indispensable". "Complete" is the protein that contains all 22 essential amino acids. It should be emphasized that it is not important how much “full value protein” can be obtained from one single product, but the total amount of amino acids consumed by a person.
Our body does not need the proteins themselves, namely, amino acids that are not "plant" or "animal." Therefore, the statement about the need for animal protein for humans has no basis. High-grade proteins with a full range of amino acids are found in all leafy vegetables containing chlorophyll, in all types of nuts, in some fruits (pears, persimmon, apricots), as well as in sprouted grains of wheat and other cereals. Lentils, beans and other legumes are a rich source of vegetable protein; soy and soy products (including such as tofu and Okara), food chestnuts, amaranth oil.Animal proteins are abundant in all types of dairy products: in cottage cheese, milk, ryazhenka, in cheeses, etc. Currently, a new product has appeared in Russia - vegetarian sausages, sausages, and sausages based on easily digestible wheat protein. All of these foods are even more abundant sources of complete protein than fish and meat.
Let me remind once again and emphasize that amino acids are called “essential” not because they are only in meat and therefore meat is “irreplaceable”, but because these amino acids most often cannot be synthesized by the body itself and must be obtained from the outside, that is, with food.
You can often hear the following explanation for your unwillingness to give up meat: “I do hard physical labor, and I need meat for strength.” And although this statement seems to be reasonable, there is no reason to believe that a vegetarian diet, in particular supplemented with dairy products, will not be able to provide people with even the highest need for protein and other essential nutrients. Eating enough natural products completely eliminates the possibility of a lack of protein in the body.We should not forget that the plant world, ultimately, is the source of all types of protein. Vegetarians get protein directly from this source, and not “through second arms”, as those who eat the meat of herbivores. What amount of protein do we really need?
Dr. Paavo Ayrola, a leading expert in the field of nutrition and natural biology, states: “Twenty years ago it was believed that the daily protein intake was 150 grams, and today the officially recognized rate has decreased to 45 grams. Why? Thanks to research conducted in a number of countries, it is now reliably known that the body does not need large amounts of protein and that its daily rate is no more than 30–45 g. Excessive protein intake is not only useless, but also causes great harm to the human body, moreover It can cause such serious diseases as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. To get 45 grams of protein per day, it is not necessary to eat meat. A full-fledged vegetarian diet consisting of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables and fruits, fully provides a person with the necessary amount of protein. ”
It should be noted that modern science does not consider the question of the mandatory consumption of such an amount of protein finally resolved, since in many countries people receive protein in much smaller quantities. In his book “Buddhism and Vegetarianism,” Rossi, Philip Kaplo also dispels this “protein myth.” In connection with the study of the problem of low protein intake in third world countries, it was found that the true cause of protein starvation is ordinary malnutrition. If the diet in general is not enough calories, then the symptoms of protein deficiency can continue to manifest even if the body begins to receive protein in excess. The reason for this is the body’s defensive response to a calorie deficit, with the result that a substantial portion of the protein is “burned” in the muscle tissues to extract the body’s necessary energy.
Most scientists agree that in practice it is very difficult to find a diet that would contain an insufficient amount of protein, especially taking into account the fact that plant foods, as a rule, contain even more of them than meat and fish products.By consuming different foods, each of which is not individually a “complete protein,” you can get the whole range of essential amino acids.
For example, amino acids missing in rice are found in excess in legumes, which makes it possible to consider a rice dish in combination with legumes as a source of complete protein. This combination of products is an order of magnitude better than meat in the amount and value of the protein contained in it. Moreover, the simultaneous use of legumes and cereal products increases the absorption of protein by the body. If from rice the body absorbs 60% of protein, and from legumes 65%, then when they are used together, this figure is 85%.
Many indigenous peoples of North and South America have been living comfortably for centuries, having in their diet simple dishes of corn, beans and rice - any combination of them provides a complete protein profile. It is also known that from time immemorial the main dish of Indians is kichri - a combination of rice and dal (the common name for a number of diverse legumes resembling lentils), also being a source of complete protein. In Japan, which until the mid-19th century was, in fact, a vegetarian country, traditionally the main dish was and still is rice combined with soy products.A survey of a group of Japanese Buddhist monks, whose vegan diet consisted mainly of rice and barley with soy, showed that they were all healthy and in good physical shape. The population of China also mostly existed on a diet of rice and beans, and a mixture of millet, corn and soybeans - the main food of the peasants of northern China - is another example of a complete source of protein.
The main dish of Caucasian peoples is still lobio - bean soup combined with corn porridge - hominy. Like them, many other traditional peoples for centuries lived comfortably in the conditions of “natural vegetarianism,” without torturing themselves with the question of “consuming enough protein.” When 70-year-old George Bernard Shaw was once asked how he feels on a vegetarian diet, he replied: “Great! Only I am very bothered by doctors, who all the time say that I will die without meat! ” When after 20 years, the same person asked Shaw about his current state of health, he exclaimed: “Excellent! you know, all those doctors who unanimously claimed that I would die if I did not eat meat — they themselves had already died long ago, so now nobody bothers me! ”
You just have to accept the fact that meat-eating doctors have always been and will be against vegetarianism precisely because of their bias, even despite the existence of objective facts, and the reason for this is well explained by the doctor of medical sciences, State Prize winner Professor Ivan Pavlovich Neumyvakin, who worked in the system of medical care cosmonauts are more than 30 years old: “Be careful not to fall into the hands of doctors, not because they are bad, but because they are captivated by their own delusions. It was beneficial for someone to create such a system in which the less patients there are, the lower the salaries of doctors and the fewer they are in the staffing table. Unfortunately, a healthy person does not need medicine; medicine needs as many patients as possible. A patient is the job of a huge healthcare industry, the medical and pharmaceutical industries, that is, a market that lives at the expense of patients. ” Academician of the Academy of Natural Sciences Alexander Orekhov continues: “... therefore, no matter how cynical it sounds, medicine and doctors are interested in people getting sick, otherwise they will be left without work. In theory, the main focus of health care should be the prevention of diseases and the reduction of morbidity.
In fact, our entire medical system is based on the principle “the worse for a patient, the better for a doctor”. When I wanted to carry out a number of preventive measures, I heard from one official: “Your health programs are in conflict with the interests of the health care system. After all, if morbidity rates decrease, our rates will decrease and funding will decrease. ” It should be recognized that the presence of the meat, tobacco and alcohol industries allows states to maintain an acceptable level of morbidity and mortality in the country, since in the present situation no government in the world is interested in retiring people dying to 100 or 150 years. Agrarian, but not industrial economy is interested in high life expectancy. All this should be borne in mind in order to understand why official medicine, even despite objective facts, still insists on the need to eat meat products. Nevertheless, the American scientists Davy Rüben and Dr. V. Villett, as well as thousands of their colleagues around the world, unanimously say that “the optimal amount of meat necessary for a person is zero!”.
Not only adults, but also children, as well as pregnant women can follow a vegetarian diet without any damage to their health. The results of a study conducted by Mervyn Harding and Frederick Stair of Harvard University showed that even the strictest vegetarian diet can provide the increased protein and essential amino acid needs of children and pregnant women. Doctor Stanley Davidson in his book “Human Nutrition and Dietetics” writes: “It is proved that the consumption of vegetable proteins in the right proportions can successfully replace animal protein in a child’s diet.”
The Lancet magazine, the most authoritative British medical publication, refutes the earlier opinion about the superiority of animal protein over vegetable: “Before, proteins of plant origin were considered less valuable,“ second-rate ”in relation to animal proteins. To date, such a division has generally proved to be untenable. Numerous clinical studies have shown that the protein obtained with the correct combination of vegetable protein sources provides indicators of the growth and development of the child’s body,in no way inferior to the similar indicators in children receiving animal protein with milk and other animal products. Children can grow, develop and have excellent health even without drinking milk, provided that their diet contains the optimal combination of essential plant proteins. ”
The Journal of the American Dietetic Association reports that the mental development rate of young vegetarians is 17 points higher than the average, and their height is higher. If a child eats vegetarian food since childhood, his puberty begins a little later than the average (taking acceleration into account), but this is for the better. The fact is that when puberty comes too early, it often leads to cancer. In particular, girls who do not eat meat, 4 times reduced risk of breast cancer. Doctors are often forced to state the sad fact: already at preschool age, a child has atherosclerotic deposits on the arteries. But not in vegetarian children. In people who have been eating vegetarian food since birth, the probability of cardiovascular diseases is reduced 10 times!
It is difficult to find a child who would not suffer from colds, ear infections, who would not have a stomach ache. As soon as the baby goes to the nursery or kindergarten, it begins ... But these troubles can be much less. To do this, you just need to stop giving the child meat, poisoning its delicate body with its toxins! The famous American naturopath doctor Herbert Shelton says the following: “Of course, neither meat, nor broth, nor eggs should ever be given to a child up to 7–8 years old. At this age, he still does not have the strength to neutralize toxins. ”
If someone still tells you that meat is necessary for children and pregnant women, simply recommend to this person to read the internationally best-selling handbook for young parents “Child and care for him”. In this book, Dr. Benjamin Spock, recognized as the best child health specialist in the world, appeals to all parents, even if they are not vegetarians, not to give meat to their children for at least 5-7 years.
Vegetarians children not only develop better intellectually and physically, they are also much less susceptible to stress.
Vegetable proteins contain minimal amounts of fat.It helps a person to reduce calorie intake. Animal proteins are generally characterized by a high content of saturated fats, which can clog arteries and cause various diseases.
And now a few numbers. From 100 g of fish a person gets 12-16 g of protein, from 100 g of meat - 14-20 g of protein, from 100 g of beans - 19.6 g of protein, from 100 g of peas - 19.7 g of protein, from 100 g of cheese - 30 grams of protein. More detailed tables of protein content in animal and plant products can be found on the Internet.
CONCLUSION: High-quality vegetarian protein is found in dishes that combine legumes and cereal products, as well as dishes with a combination of vegetables and cheese. Therefore, in the Vedic cuisine is very often used Adyghe cheese (paneer), from which it is prepared vegetable dishes and casseroles. Do not forget about green smoothies and smoothies.
Now about animals
Vegetable food is very difficult to assimilate. That is why, by the way, it is also available - according to the principle “sees the eye, let the tooth grow into one.” It would seem that what the problem is - go into the forest, open your mouth and eat! But not everything is so simple.
First, plant cells are covered with durable shells consisting of very poorly digestible carbohydrates (for example, cellulose).To get to the cytoplasm contained within the cell, the shell must somehow be destroyed, and this is very difficult to do.
But even if any bear cub opens up a cellulose safe, there will be a big disappointment waiting for him - there is nothing interesting inside either. In plants, there is relatively little protein, but this is the most delicious nutrient.
And the protein that is, is poor in some amino acids. For example, in plants there is little lysine - an indispensable amino acid that cannot be made in the animal's body, you can only eat it - and where is it? In plants it is not enough ...
One can only sympathize with the herbivores: their life is continuous hard work. But the guys somehow cope; we will continue to say how.
Method one, dumb: filtering
The most unsophisticated grass-eaters destroy cellulosic membranes mechanically - jaws. This is how most leaf-eating insects work - caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles. The problem is that no matter how carefully they chew food, they don’t succeed in cracking every cell, so the effectiveness of such nutrition is low - many eaten cells fall out intact in feces.In order to scrape together any protein necessary for growth, caterpillars / grasshoppers pass an enormous amount of plant mass through their intestines.
Similarly, aphids and shchitovki pass through a huge amount of sweet water. These insects penetrate with their proboscis directly into the phloem vessels of the plant, from where they get sweet water under pressure (you don’t even need to suck). But sugar is only a source of energy, which is not needed by aphids, they are not mobile. But proteins to build the body (and unstoppable reproduction) are very necessary. It can be said that the aphid "filters" the phloem juice in search of golden grains of protein, which it finds - greedily leaves, and throws out the hateful sugar water.
This feature of aphids is used by ants, who gladly drink the sweet liquid secreted by aphids. Some species of ants go further - go for aphids on long journeys, bring them closer to their anthill and release them on plants. Then the aphids are protected from their natural enemies - the ladybirds, and when winter comes, they hide valuable animals in their anthill so that they do not freeze.In short, they take care of people like cows or goats.
And then, accordingly, they milk: in the books they write that the ant comes up to the aphid, tapping it with its mustache lightly, and the aphid obediently gives off a drop of sweet liquid - eat it, father-ant. One simple question destroys a beautiful idyll: where does aphid secrete a sweet liquid? - From the anus, of course! We can say that the aphid just crap one's pants from fear. From her side, this is a completely normal behavior: many insects, when attacking them, emit something such.
Method two, intermediate: power change
Bees, butterflies, bumblebees and other insects that feed on nectar, when grown up, go out, receive only energy in the form of carbohydrates, and do not receive any protein food at all. Therefore, they live a short time (breakdowns accumulate in the body, which cannot be repaired - there are no proteins). The larvae of all these insects feed on plants - the caterpillars of butterflies eat the leaves, and the larvae of the bees eat a mixture of honey and pollen (pergu), i.e. proteins in their diet is still there.
Children for growth and development is highly desirable to obtain food rich in proteins.In phytophagous mammals, this complete nutrition is milk: milk protein and casein contain a complete set of essential amino acids. Where the mother cow will take this complete set is her problem, but the baby calf will eat just like lions and wolves - full-fledged protein food (in cow's milk about 3% casein, in human - about 0.7%).
What to do phytophagous birds? Do not worry - because the initial stages of development of the chick were inside the egg, where there were no problems with amino acids. And after hatching from the egg - feed the children animal food - insects. (In the diet of an adult sparrow, insects make up about 15%, and in the diet of sparrow chicks - about 60%. Thus, when growing offspring, grain-eating sparrows exterminate a huge number of insect pests and bring more benefits to agriculture than harm.)
The third way, cunning: symbiosis
Most herbivores use bacteria with the necessary enzyme (cellulase) to destroy the cellulose cell wall of plants. In the digestive systems of such animals there are two areas: in one the bacteria digest the grass, and in the other - the animals digest the bacteria (what a low cunning!)
This method is best implemented in ruminants: first they have a section for bacteria and protozoa (cicatrix), which digest the grass: the bacteria destroy the cellulose membranes of the cells and eat the cytoplasm, then the protozoa eat the bacteria. The grid (rumen outgrowth) divides the food: finely chopped mass goes further into the book, and grass that is not chewed out regurgitates back into the mouth for additional chewing (which gum best helps against caries?)
The food chewed a second time, without further ado, enters the book immediately. Between its leaves, food (what it has now become) is finally ground up and goes to the rennet, which in its work corresponds to an “ordinary” (for example, ours) stomach. In the abomasum, the cow calmly digests the simplest (and they enjoyed life! In the rumen it was so good - warm, humid, full of food! But you have to pay for everything ...)
All other grass-eaters could not find the same simple and clear solution as ruminants, so they have to do everything in their power. With us, you first have our digestion (stomach and small intestine), and in the last section (colon) live bacteria (mainly E. coli).In the large intestine, our digestion is no longer happening - this is the department for sucking water, so that all the grass that has been processed by bacteria also goes to them. Thus, we use vegetable food is not at full capacity, so we can not only eat grass, as cows do.
Termites eat wood, therefore they pose a great danger to wooden buildings - if termites start up in a wooden house, it means that the house will soon end. (The word "termite" in Greek means "the end," and the word "Terminator" comes from the same root.) In the intestines of termites, there is a double symbiosis: they contain flagellated simple hypermastigines, which digest the wood at the expense of their own symbionts - bacteria. This zoo in termites, like us, is located in the last section of the intestine (in which water is absorbed and feces are formed). Termites periodically move this feces back into the midgut, where bacteria are digested. All this operation takes place inside the body, imperceptible to others.
The hares and rabbits imperceptibly failed. Bacterial digestion of grass (and in winter - the bark) they also have after their own - in the cecum, located on the border between the thin and the thick.In normal digestion, food from the cecum must go to the fat, then to the line and be thrown away, and the hares do so. Well, it remains to warmly say goodbye and let free fed bacteria into the wild, as we do? But hares cannot be so good, because they do not have shops full of sausage on hand. Therefore, they, like termites, return feces to the stomach and intestines, and in a very simple way - they eat it. Consequently, they have two types of feces - one passed through the digestive system once, and the other twice. Hares, of course, well distinguish these two species and eat only the first.
Where do symbiotes inside the animal take nitrogen for extra proteins
The problem of percolation that stupid aphids face from the first method faces, in fact, in front of all herbivorous animals: carbohydrates (a source of energy for running around the field with wild mooing) are abundant, but biceps and triceps pump up - nothing. This “nothing”, as stated at the beginning of the article, consists of two parts: firstly, plants are poor in proteins, and secondly, plant proteins are poor in some amino acids.
But what about symbiotic bacteria in the stomach of a cow / termite - aren't they magicians? - In such a case, the French have a saying: “to make a ragout out of a hare, you must have at least a cat”. In theory, bacteria can make proteins on their own, but practically - in plant foods there is too little nitrogen needed for this. So the problem is where to get the nitrogen.
Sift, sift, and sift: extract proteins from food, and throw everything else away with feces.
Most of the herbivorous will gladly eat an animal: domestic horses catch and eat rats, reindeer - lemmings and voles (as well as thrown horns with pleasure) ... But such trifles, of course, do not save.
Our atmosphere contains 80% of gaseous nitrogen, but it is poorly suited for protein synthesis - it is too resistant. Atoms in the nitrogen molecule hold each other as many as three strong bonds, and breaking these hugs is not an easy task. Only some nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes (bacteria and cyaneas) are able to solve it — they are the main source of nitrogen atoms (and, ultimately, proteins) for cows and the like.Nitrogen fixers, just like in nodules in legumes, “fix” (extract) nitrogen from the air contained in the cow's stomach. A small difficulty can be considered only that there is not too much air in the cow’s stomach.
The fixers can help: add a source of nitrogen to the food of the cow - urea. And at this point I have a question to which I do not know the answer: after all, urea is constantly and in large quantities formed inside the cow itself, and then is removed with the urine.