What is the structural formula of isoprene
What is isoprene? The general formula of this compound corresponds to the homologous series of diene hydrocarbons, and has the composition CnH2n-2. Let us analyze some methods of obtaining this chemical compound, as well as clarify the main areas of its application.
Brief description of physical properties
We list the main physical properties of isoprene. This diene hydrocarbon is toxic, has insignificant solubility in water. High concentrations of this drug have a narcotic effect. The maximum permissible concentration, which is not harmful to humans, is 40 mg / cm3. With the increase of this indicator2-methylbutadiene-1,3 adversely affects the human psyche. Under normal conditions this substance is a colorless volatile liquid having a low boiling point.
Features of chemical properties
What is the structural formula of isoprene? In the composition of this organic compound there are two double bonds. They also characterize the basic chemical interactions of this representative of diene compounds with other organic and inorganic substances. Isoprene is easily oxidized in air oxygen, the products of interaction are peroxides.
Does isoprene enter polymerization? The general formula for the class to which this hydrocarbon belongs is CnH2n-2. Like other representatives of the homologous series of butadiene-1,3, isoprene is capable of forming a high-molecular compound.
In the process of polymerization, the formation of cis and trans isomers of polyisoprene, which are analogues of natural rubber, takes place.
Obtaining natural rubber
What is the preparation of isoprene? The reactions that occur in this case are connected with the conversion of the isoprene monomer to the polymer, polyisoprene. To isolate natural rubber, which has a similar structure with 2-methylbutadiene-1,3, apply the lacteal juice of tropical trees.
The resulting juice is vulcanized,consisting in the treatment with sulfur chloride. In this chemical reaction, the rubber absorbs a certain amount of sulfur, acquiring plasticity, elasticity. The polymerization product is resistant to temperature changes, aggressive chemicals. The structural formula of isoprene explains the features of the process of vulcanization.
If for a given chemical interactionsulfur in the range from 25 to 40 percent, it is possible to obtain ebonite. This substance has a high strength, is used as an excellent insulating material. The structural formula of isoprene, which came into contact with sulfur, does not contain double bonds. It is the structure of the product that explains its mechanical strength.
Polyisoprene rubbers consider all polymers used in the manufacture of aircraft, automobile, bicycle chambers and tires.
What else can tell the structural formulaIsoprene? It is capable of double bond reactions with molecules of halogenated hydrocarbons, halogens, hydrogen, and water. These reactions prove that isoprene belongs to the class of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Methods of industrial production
There are several ways of industrialobtaining isoprene. For example, in the reaction of acetylene with acetone, the reaction involves the formation of an intermediate product of methylbutynol. After its hydrogenation, subsequent dehydration forms isoprene. It is also possible to obtain 2-methylbutadiene-1,3 from propylene. When selecting catalysts, methane can be obtained as an additional substance.
Application of isoprene
The bulk of manufactured isoprene is usedfor the synthesis of isoprene rubber. It is almost identical in its physical and chemical characteristics to natural material. Among the spheres of application of a ready high-molecular compound, let's call the production of automobile tires.
In addition to the cis-isomer, among the polymerization productsthere is also a trans-isomer having gutta-percha characteristics. It has no special industrial application. This polymer substance goes to the creation of golf balls, as well as to produce insulation of electrical wires. Among the important branches of the use of isoprene, one can single out the synthesis of polymeric materials of the styrene-isoprene-styrene type. Products of this kind are used as thermoplastic materials and pressure sensitive adhesives.
Isoprene is necessary for the synthesis of butyl rubber, its quantitative content in it reaches up to three percent.
Since the end of the last century in the United StatesAmerica began the industrial production of terpenes from the initial mixture of isoprene, acetylene, acetone. The technology on which this method was based assumed a two-stage synthesis.