What are nootropics? Drugs to stimulate mental activity and improve memory
Complaints about bad memory today can be heard from almost every person. And this concerns not only the beautiful creatures, which, it seems, is supposed to have a girl's memory. This phenomenon is often found in the representatives of the stronger sex.
An impressive part of the population of our planet simply forgets about many things. And often doctors associate this with violations of the correct operation of the brain. Due to this reason, learning is impaired, a person has depression and lethargy, headaches, sleep disturbances, dizziness and other phenomena.
Can we help such a defenseless and at the same time important for us gray matter? After all, it is believed that his nerve cells are not restored. But it turns out that this statement is not quite true and every person can help his brain.To do this, there are certain drugs, the first place in the list belongs to nootropics. They are used to improve brain activity.
What are these drugs?
Let's get acquainted with the means to improve brain activity in more detail. What are nootropics? The name of this group of medicines comes from a combination of two words. The first of them is “noos”, which means “mind”, and the second is “tropos”, that is, “means”. To put it another way, these are substances that have an affinity (or, according to the medical term, “tropism”) to the mind. However, this is not entirely true. Identify in this case, the mind as a whole is not worth it. This is done by “big psychiatry”, which has in its arsenal antipsychotics, eliminating psychosis, tranquilizers, relieving anxiety, antidepressants, etc.
In this regard, it is necessary to more specifically understand the question “what are nootropics?” These are drugs that have some effects of neuropharmacological agents used in psychiatry, but less specific (because of what is sometimes more useful). The fact is that psychiatry intervenes in the most subtle processes of regulating brain activity. Sometimes it only hurts the patient or forms his drug addiction.Taking these drugs can be compared with the effect on the body of dipyrone with symptoms of pain. Unpleasant sensations will remove this tool, but their cause probably will not remove.
Nootropics act differently. They improve the activity of the brain cells as a whole. And this, in turn, leads to the improvement of the human psyche. For example, insomnia, the cause of which lies in chronic disturbance of cerebral circulation or is a consequence of a head injury suffered by the patient, is sometimes eliminated with hypnotics, such as Phenazepam, Sibazon, etc. But brain treatment. To do this, you need drugs that improve blood circulation in the gray matter, enhance metabolic processes in the nerve cells, protect the membrane from destruction, and also eliminate aggressive molecules in the form of free radicals that harm its normal operation. After that, insomnia, irritability, headache, weakness, dizziness, as well as other manifestations of astheno-vegetative disease will pass by themselves.Reception of sedatives and hypnotics in this case will be only episodic.
What are nootropics? These are drugs that are allocated to a separate pharmacological group. Its code is ATX: №06BX.
The first of the nootropics was the preparation "Piracetam" synthesized and introduced by Belgian pharmacologists in 1963. Further studies have shown that this tool improves memory and facilitates learning processes. Thus, this first nootropic became the main competitor of psychostimulants. However, increasing the mental capacity of a person, he had no side effects in the form of addiction and exhaustion, psychomotor agitation and intoxication, which were observed when taking the latter.
The drug, synthesized by Belgian pharmacologists, improved attention and helped the patient to concentrate better. At the beginning of the history of its existence, Piracetam was prescribed to elderly people in order to treat brain dysfunction.
The term “nootropics” was proposed only in 1972. It became the name for a whole class of drugs that could have an effect on integrative higher brain functions.Indeed, after the pharmacological agent “Piracetam” was successfully introduced into medical practice, the researchers synthesized more than a dozen nootropic drugs that make up the pyrolidine series.
Today they are in phase 3 of clinical trials, and in a number of countries such drugs as Aniracetam and Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam and Etiracetam, Rolairacetam and Dupracetam, Nefiracetam and Cebracetam are already registered " and others. These neurometabolic stimulants are called "racetam", due to their chemical structure. Further, other families of similar drugs, which include peptidergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic and GABAergic, as well as other substances, have been developed. In addition, neurometabolic activity was proven in other previously known elements.
It should be noted that today there is no single classification for these funds. This is due to the fact that the substances belonging to this group have heterogeneity not only in their chemical structure, but also in the mechanism of action on the human body.At the same time, the nootropic effect exerted may be primary or secondary. In the first case, the effect is directly on the nerve cell.
The secondary effect is due to the improvement of microcirculation and cerebral blood flow, as well as anti-edema, antiagregatnym and anti-gitoksicheskim action.
Some substances that belong to the group of nootropics have a broad spectrum of activity. They have axiolytic and antihypoxic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, sedative and other effects. Moreover, the neurometabolic effect itself is sometimes not at all dominant.
That is why “true” nootropics are distinguished for improving memory and enhancing brain activity. For them, improving cognitive and mnestic functions is a major concern. Such tools are “engaged” only with the brain, and nothing else.
There are also “not quite” nootropic drugs. They are drugs with mixed effects. These include some anticonvulsants and sedatives. Their function includes not only the stimulation of mental activity.They also allow a person to work much more productively.
What are nootropics? These are drugs that have a direct effect on neurotransmitters. The mechanism of action of nootropic drugs is that with the help of their constituent elements, the best communication between the nerve cells takes place. In addition, they affect norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcoline and serotonin. All of them are activated drugs, which leads to the fact that the neurons in the brain becomes much easier to interact with each other.
In addition, nootropics can protect nerve cells from damage, compensate for the lack of oxygen, as well as enhance metabolism and blood flow in the tissues. When such conditions are created, the nerve cells begin to work much better.
The pharmacological effect of nootropics on the body depends on the group in which the drug is included. Consider this question in more detail:
1. Pyrrolidine derivatives.The most popular representative of this group is piracetam. It helps to improve blood flow, while enhancing the metabolic processes occurring in the brain. In this case, the drug improves the functioning of neurotransmitters.The drugs "Oxyracetam", "Etiracetam", "Pramiracetam", etc. are also included in the "racetam" group.
2. Pyridoxine derivatives.The most prominent representative of this group is pyritinod. It also allows you to increase the cerebral blood flow and metabolic processes. In this group are such drugs as "Biotredin" and "Pyritinol."
3. Derivatives of dimethylaminoethanol.These drugs affect acetylcoline. This is a neurotransmitter that is directly responsible for cognitive functions, that is, the ability to learn. The group of such drugs includes "Deanol Aceglumut", "Fenotropil", "Meklofenoxat."
4. Cerebrovascular drugs.They include natural nootropics, such as, for example, an extract of the “glue-biloba tree” that is resistant to “everything in the world”. It is believed that such a resistance when using it is acquired by the brain.
5. Analogs and derivatives of gamma-aminobutyric acid.This non-mediator is responsible for peace of mind. Such nootropics were synthesized to conquer stress, which made it possible not to slow down the reactions of the body, which occur when taking usual sedatives.In this group are such drugs as "Aminalon", "Phenibut", "Pikamilon".
6. Neuropeptides, as well as their analogues.These drugs are used by ambulance doctors and emergency workers. Apply them in the treatment of strokes. These are the medicines “Noopept”, “Selank”, “Semax”.
7. Derivatives of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole.These drugs supply the brain cells with oxygen and help a person to withstand extreme loads and influences. This, for example, means "Bemitil."
8. Amino acids, as well as substances that have a direct effect on the group of stimulating the body of amino acids.Their use allows a person to cope with their responsibilities under stress. In this group are such a drug as "Glycine".
9. Organic composites and polypeptides.Components of these drugs are peptides of amino acids. They are similar to brain proteins, without which growth of nerve cells is impossible. Acceptance of such anotropes contributes to the growth and preservation of neurons. This allows patients to improve memory as well as the ability to concentrate. Such agents include Cerebramine, Cerebrolysin and Cortexin.
10. Vitamin-like substances.These include, for example, such a drug as "Idebenone".Its main function is to improve the blood supply to the brain tissue.
It is this effect on the body and have nootropics. The list of drugs included in one group or another is quite extensive. In Russian pharmacies they offer a large assortment. And nootropics are realized without recipes. In this regard, many people buy these pills themselves, and without any evidence. These are, for example, students who will soon have a session coming, or office workers preparing for a responsible event. However, it should be borne in mind that nootropics affect cumulatively. That is, they need to accumulate in the body in order to stir up biological processes in it. This will require a certain period, which, depending on the medicine, can last from several days to several weeks. That is why nootropics need to drink courses. Taking a pill just before an exam or an important meeting is meaningless. You need to start the course on average per month.
Old and New Generation Tools
The list of nootropic drugs is also classified according to the time of their synthesis.At the same time, the medicines of the old as well as the new generation are isolated. The first group contains funds that were discovered at the dawn of creating such neurostimulators. These include derivatives of the very first drug, Piracetam, the so-called racetam. These are nootropics with proven efficacy, in the list of which are "Detiracetam" and "Izatsetam", "Nefiracetam" and "Tsebracetam", "Rolzyracetam" and "Dupracetam", "Pramiracetam" and "Etiracetam", "Aniracetam" and "Oxiracetam".
In the 90s of the last century, a new page was opened in the history of the development of these drugs. The newest nootropic drugs have fewer side effects and at the same time have a more flexible selective effect on the body.
In the list of the most popular means of the new generation are:
- Fezam, which not only improves cerebral circulation, but also enhances energy and protein metabolism, while providing a vasodilator effect.
- “Noopept”, which allows to restore memory and other cognitive functions already lost by a person, as well as alleviate anxiety and eliminate headaches.
- "Fonturatacetam", recommended for patients with a stroke, to improve concentration, attention, and enhance the transfer of information between the hemispheres.
- "Selank", relieves stress and anxiety, uplifting and enhances mental abilities.
Features of use
Reception nootropov should not be thoughtless. Otherwise, the drugs in this group can lead to a sad result. In this regard, even if it is planned to use nootropes with proven effectiveness, first of all you will need to consult with a neurologist. He will listen to the patient's complaints and make a picture of failures in brain activity. After receiving a positive response, a recommendation will be given on which nootropics are best to be taken, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.
To take medication that stimulates brain activity, you will need to prepare in advance. What will it be? In a kind of laying of the foundation, on which the building will be erected the most effective effect of the selected brain stimulator later on.And for this you will need to carry out the fortification of the body, which will allow the necessary substances as quickly as possible to reach the brain and better assimilate them. Reception of such natural complexes as “Chlorophyll” and “Iron”, “Omega-3” and “Grepine” is recommended for vitaminization.
Nootropics are most often used by students to successfully complete a session, which requires memorizing a large amount of information in the shortest possible time. This method of use of such drugs is very useful, but not the only one.
Doctors prescribe nootropics to their patients with:
- disorders of cerebral circulation;
- vegetative-trophic disorders;
- Cochlevestibular and asthenodepressive disorders;
- vegetative-vascular dystonia;
- cerebral ischemia;
- asthenic syndrome;
- arterial hypertension;
- vascular dementia;
- in the recovery period after a stroke.
Most modern nootropic drugs prescribed for diseases of the central nervous system. Sometimes these drugs are simply necessary for healthy people to relieve fatigue.It is recommended to take nootropics and to slow down the process of natural aging.
Despite the large number of positive actions, the harm of nootropics is also obvious. In order to have a favorable effect, these preparations should be taken in strict compliance with all prescriptions and instructions. Otherwise, the drugs will only increase the symptoms of the pathology for the treatment of which they are used. In addition, if taken improperly, vomiting and nausea, diarrhea and insomnia, skin flushing, increased blood pressure, anxiety and irritability are possible.
Can nootropics be used for children? Yes! Doctors prescribe drugs of this group for the development of speech in children, increasing their ability to learn, enhance mental activity and memorization. In pediatrics, nootropics have been used for a long time, and every year their list is constantly increasing. For young patients, pharmacists are trying to create drugs with a minimal amount of side effects. At the same time, nootropics for children are sometimes produced in a different form than for adults.So, for the smallest syrups are offered.
What are nootropics for children?
The scope in pediatrics of similar means is rather extensive. So, nootropics are prescribed for diagnoses such as:
- Cerebral palsy (cerebral palsy);
In addition, nootropics are recommended for the development of speech, the elimination of the effects of hypoxia and in case of intellectual deficiency. Children take these drugs more easily than adults, but even the new generation of drugs sometimes cause side effects in the form of nausea and vomiting, headaches and insomnia, diarrhea and reflex inhibition. But even with such symptoms, treatment is not canceled. The drug is replaced by another, adjusting the therapeutic scheme of destination.
Nootropics are often prescribed to small patients in combination with dihydrogen dihydrogen preparations. This allows the body to clear faster.
Nootropics are used in the treatment of children with various neurological abnormalities that require immediate elimination. Despite the fact that with the growth and development of a person such states can normalize by themselves, young patients cannot wait.Neurological disorders will certainly affect the mental development of the baby, and he will begin to lag behind his peers in development. The older the child becomes, the more difficult it will be to compensate for gaps between brain activity and the nervous system. That is why you should pay attention to nootropic drugs, and be sure to undergo treatment with them, especially if it is prescribed by a pediatrician.