Types of wrestling and martial arts: overview and brief description
Fighting and martial arts are popular among athletes around the world. They are conventionally divided into three groups: shock, wrestling and mixed. Each of these categories includes certain types of struggle, which have similar characteristics.
A feature of shock martial arts is the fact that they are allowed to use only percussion techniques. In some types of combat is conducted with the help of punches and kicks, in others you can beat your knees or elbows. Athletes who engage in percussion wrestling are vulnerable to those who study mixed martial arts. The fact is that they are defenseless before the fighters of mixed styles, when the fight is transferred to the stalls.
Kick martial arts include:
- Thai boxing.
This single combat originated in Korea.It is called differently: taekwondo, taekwondo and taekwondo. The main distinctive feature of this type of struggle in the sport is the active use of the legs. In a duel, direct and reversal punches are allowed. Athletes have great stamina and speed. Despite the fact that taekwondo was born 2,000 years ago, it has been considered a sport only since 1955.
Boxing is a sport that developed from fistfight. Over time, the rules were regulated, special training methods were developed. The fight is held in the ring, fenced on all sides. Athletes act in soft gloves. The contenders take part in contests that are in equal weight categories and have similar sports categories. The rules prohibit the execution of potentially dangerous actions.
Boxing is one of the most difficult sports. The fact is that the situation of the battle is changing rapidly. Athletes should have an instant response and good orientation in space. Moreover, boxers must quickly make decisions and take technical action.Dexterity, speed, accuracy, good composure and rationalism - all these qualities are inherent in the boxer. The body must be very hardy. In the process of training, athletes learn to economically, but effectively spend their strength. Success in competitions depends on how much effort the athlete has invested in improving the techniques and tactics of warfare.
Thai or Thai boxing
One of the most famous boxing arts is Muay Thai, which is also Thai boxing. Originally, this type of boxing was developed as an army and martial art. The personal guards of the monarch perfectly mastered the techniques of Thai combat. They trained to repel the enemy, which is far superior in number.
By the 21st century, Muay Thai has become a more sporting form of struggle than a real martial art. The rules have undergone significant changes, become more loyal. As a result, the once-deadly martial art has become much less effective.
This combat originated in the 60s of the last century. It has spread in many countries around the world. There are several types of kickboxing:
- American. It is based on full contact fights. This means that during a fight, you can strike any force directed at any part of the body, including the head. You can fight with your legs and arms.
- Japanese. Speaking frankly, Japanese kickboxing is modernized Thai boxing. The types of wrestling that formed the basis of Japanese kickboxing are very similar to modern martial arts. There are only two significant differences. Firstly, elbow strikes are prohibited. Secondly, the scoring system has been changed. In 1981, many kickboxers were caught in criminal gangs, so a number of large Japanese schools were closed. Subsequently, Japanese kickboxing came under the auspices of the K-1 organization, which brought it to a new level.
Translated from Japanese, this word means “empty hand path”. It is based on a variety of percussion techniques. The battle is fought with the help of hands. The rules prohibit the use of grabs and throws, but at the same time allowed the use of certain types of weapons, among them - cold. The main task of athletes - to force the opponent to change the rack. The greatest role in karate is a sense of balance, as well as the speed and speed of wrestlers.
Athletes who are engaged in judo, jiu-jitsu, sambo, grappling or war fighting, have well-developed endurance, but their speed qualities leave much to be desired. This is due to the fact that the fight is most often conducted in the clinch or on the ground, that is, it is less dynamic than in the types of shock fighting. However, the above varieties of sports are very spectacular.
In Japanese, the word "judo" means "soft way." It was in this country that this sporting combat originated. Judo is based on all sorts of painful techniques, throws, strangulation and restraint. Athletes judo follow the principle of unity of the body and spirit. When performing certain technical actions, they spend less energy and physical strength. This is the main difference between judo and other types of wrestling and martial arts.
Since 1964, judo has been one of the summer Olympic sports. This single combat is subject to clear rules, because at the time of the fight the mind controls the body, so that judo is educational in nature. Athletes not only take part in competitions, but also explore the technique, learn self-defense techniques, as well as improve the spirit and physical fitness.More than 200 national judo federations in 5 continents of the world work.
Sambo is a fighting type of combat. This martial art is used for self-defense, it can be used to disable the enemy. However, there is another type of sambo - sports. It has a beneficial effect on the spiritual development of the individual, contributes to the development of stamina, self-confidence, trains discipline and self-control in a person. In addition, sports sambo is a type of wrestling that tempers the body and brings a person into good physical shape. Sambo is a unique martial art. It is the only sporting event, competitions in which are held in Russian.
The term "jiu-jitsu" is used to characterize a special combat system, which is very difficult to describe in words. First of all, it should be noted that jiu-jitsu is hand-to-hand combat. As a rule, athletes do not use weapons. The use of additional items is strictly regulated. This martial art is based on punches and kicks, throws, blocking, holding, strangulation and binding.In this case, it is not the brute force of an athlete that is important, but his dexterity and skill. Maximum results are achieved with minimal effort. If you follow this principle, you can learn to control your body and use energy efficiently, regardless of the level of physical fitness.
Freestyle wrestling is a sport whose purpose is to lay the enemy on the shoulder blades, that is, on the carcass. The fight is strictly regulated by the rules. Fight between athletes lasts about 5 minutes. If the match ends in a draw, another 3 minutes is added to the main time. If after this time, none of the fighters won, then the match continues. Points are awarded for purely free-style wrestling techniques. You can perform various actions with your feet, including sweeps, hooks, steps. In addition, it is allowed to make captures. Wrestling techniques include throws and other technical actions performed by hands.
The basis of grapping laid the principles of several martial arts, including jiu-jitsu. The rules prohibit the use of techniques called "crucifixion" and "complete nelson".You can not drag an opponent by the hair, make the seizure of the toes and hands, bite, crush hands and knees on the face, scratch and act on the ears. Grappling is a rational struggle. Victory in it comes from an athlete who is able to correctly build a battle tactic.
This sport contributes to the development of flexibility, strength, plastics. During training, athletes learn to defend themselves with their entire body, not just their arms and legs. A very important role is played by a sense of balance and balance. Sometimes grappling is called the struggle of the last forces, as often opponents bring each other to an unconscious state with the help of suffocation, restraint and various painful techniques.
Universal types of wrestling belong to the mixed martial arts group. They use various percussion techniques, asphyxiation and pain techniques, as well as wrestling elements. Athletes who are engaged in these types of wrestling, have a technical and strategic advantage over other wrestlers. There are several nuances by which mixed martial arts can be distinguished.
- Kimono is not used in all forms.
- The number and type of ammunition used during the competition.
- The ban on the use of pain and / or suffocating techniques.
- The amount of time that is allotted to fight in the ground and to fight.
- The number of points awarded for various techniques.
Since it is impossible to master absolutely all technical actions allowed in wrestling and shock types of wrestling and martial arts, not all techniques are used in competitions. Trainers throw out some of them, if they consider this or that technical action to be ineffective. Therefore, each fighter has his own style of combat, which makes mixed martial arts the most spectacular. These include:
- Combat Sambo.
- MMA (Mix Fite).
- Hand-to-hand fight.
This sport is rooted in ancient times. It is divided into two groups:
- Army. To fight with the help of arms and legs without the help of improvised means, the military resorted last. For many centuries they studied this discipline. The bayonet battle, the fight with knives and the fight without the use of weapons - all of these are components of the army hand-to-hand combat. This combat system is aimed at quickly disabling opponents.
- Police hand-to-hand combat has its own specifics, as law enforcement officers often deal with unarmed law-breakers. In this case, the enemy must be neutralized without injuring him. Therefore, the basis of the police hand-to-hand combat was punches and punches, sticks, methods of disarming and freeing them from seizures.
The main types of struggle include kung fu, or, as it is also called, wushu. There are at least 300 varieties of this martial art. Among them, Wing Chun stands out, which means “eternal spring”. It is aimed at people who do not differ in a great physical form. Lack of weight and size is not a problem for the Wing Chun fighters. This sport is based on the impact on the unprotected pain points of the enemy, for example, the groin, eyes and throat. For the most part, the blows are inflicted below the belt, so special flexibility for athletes is not required.
MMA is an abbreviation that stands for Mixed Martial Arts, which translates as "mixed martial arts." This kind of wrestling in sports contains the most effective techniques from various martial arts.Athletes are divided into several weight categories. In battle, applied protective ammunition. Boxing gloves are replaced with lining, open from the inside. They not only allow you to make throws and various painful techniques, but also protect athletes from all sorts of injuries. The rules prohibit the use of strokes in the groin area, throat and spine. In addition, you can not perform technical actions aimed at the capture of small joints.
Wrestling at the Olympics
The program of the Olympic Games includes 4 types of martial arts. Among them - wrestling, boxing, judo, taekwondo.
- Wrestling is an Olympic sport that has been part of the Games since Antiquity. It is conventionally divided into two styles, one of which is wrestling. As mentioned earlier, in this sport it is allowed to perform technical moves with their feet. Greco-Roman wrestling competitions are also included in the program of the Olympic Games. They are known as classic wrestling. The fight takes place in a circle marked on the wrestling mat. Grips are forbidden.
- Boxing first took part in the Olympics in 1904. Since 2012, not only men but also women compete in this discipline. The basis of the rules of modern boxing lay the laws that are called the rules of the Marquis of Queensberry.They appeared at the end of the 19th century in England.
- Judo has been considered an Olympic sport since 1964. The basis of this type of struggle are the techniques of jujitsu and other martial arts. Competitions are held on a hard wrestling mat, on which a square is outlined. Judges award points for correctly executed throws and techniques. The combatants wear kimonos. A special form allows you to perform all sorts of technical actions, including spectacular shots.
- Taekwondo entered into the program of the Olympic Games in 2000. The fight is held on a hard carpet, participants wear a special uniform and protective gear. Opponents perform kicks to the opponent’s head and body.
Participants in all Olympic types of martial arts are divided into weight categories. In addition, the rules of fights and refereeing are clearly regulated.
National martial arts
There are less popular, but even more spectacular forms of struggle. These include the national martial art called capoeira, which originated from the merger of African and Brazilian cultures. It is a synthesis of dance, games and acrobatics.Athletes are fighting, accompanied by the national Brazilian music.
Various types of Japanese wrestling spread throughout the world. However, not only karate and judo, but also kendo originated in the Land of the Rising Sun. The peculiarity of this martial art is that athletes use bamboo swords at competitions. Opponents are dressed in special armor for training. For each clean shot that fell into a certain part of the opponent's body, points are awarded. Currently, kendo is included in the curriculum in Japanese schools.