The English Revolution of the 17th Century
The English Revolution of the 17th century by many historianscalled a civil war or a bourgeois revolution. After a few years, the British state became a constitutional monarchy with a very strong parliament, which opened access to power to representatives of the bourgeois class.
Nevertheless, the English revolution was not onlystruggle against the absolute power of the monarch. There was also a confrontation between religions - there were constant skirmishes between the Puritans and the supporters of the Anglican Church. There were also constant riots among the Scots and the Irish.
Causes of the English Revolution
After the death of Elizabeth Tudor, the country found itself invery difficult situation. It is worth noting that in the last years of the reign of the great queen the opinion of the parliament was practically not taken into account. But the views of the nobility changed dramatically after the throne was occupied by Jacob English, who believed that the monarch is the only one who has the right to rule the state.
The situation was even worse after the coronationCharles I, who adhered to the political views of his father. First, the king sought to unite the population of Ireland, England and Scotland, and this did not cause enthusiasm from either side. Secondly, he tried to rule without the help of the House of Lords. During the first five years of his reign, the monarch convened and dissolved the parliament three times, after which he completely refused his help for 11 years.
In addition, Karl married the Catholic, which could not go unnoticed by the Puritans, who with all their might tried to eradicate even the smallest sprouts of Catholicism in the country.
In connection with the Scottish uprising in 1642, Karl convened a parliament that is known to history as "long". The monarch was unable to dissolve the House of Lords and fled to York.
The English Revolution and Its Consequences
As a result of the insurgency, members of parliamentbroke up into two camps. Cavalry supported the god this power of the monarch. The king was joined by most of the nobility from all over the country, which at first gave him some military advantage. Another part of the population - round-headed - supported the idea of a constitutional monarchy and the power of the parliament. Most of the roundheads consisted of the Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell.
First, the troops of Cromwell were difficultto resist the trained cavalry. Nevertheless, the advantage was on the side of roundheads. In 1644, the Battle of Marton-Moor took place, as a result of which Cromwell took over virtually the whole of Northern England.
Already in 1645, an army of the newThe sample, which consisted exclusively of professional, trained soldiers. In the same year, a battle took place at Nesby, which finally consolidated the power of roundheads.
In 1649 Charles the First was captured and executed. In the same year, England was proclaimed a constitutional monarchy.
Nevertheless, the government could hardly claim the title of constitutional. Already in 1653 Oliver Cromwell declared himself a lord (protector), on the territory of England reigned military dictatorship.
Only after Cromwell's death the parliament adopteddecision to resume the status of the monarchy. Historians believe that after the ascent to the throne of the son of the executed monarch, the English revolution ended finally. In 1660, Charles II was crowned.
Results of the English Revolution
The main goal of the uprising was achieved - Englandbecame a constitutional monarchy. In the future, a strong parliament was formed, which significantly reduced the power of the royal family. Now representatives of the bourgeoisie also had access to government.
Free trade was also proclaimed, which significantly improved the state of the state treasury, and weakened Holland, which was considered to be England's main rival.