Suggestions with introductory words: examples from the literature
In Russian, there are enough ways for the speaker to convey his emotions or attitudes towards what he is talking about. To create an additional emotional or evaluative effect in speech, sentences with introductory words are used.
The concept of "introductory word"
The introductory word or phrase therefore is called because it is introduced into a sentence to express the attitude to what is said. It is included in the proposal, but does not bear its main meaning and is not connected with other members. If this construction is removed, the meaning of the sentence will not change.
People often use in the conversation with each other sentences with introductory words. Examples will be considered further:
"They say that this New Year's ball is brighter and more fun than last time." If you remove the introductory word "speak", then the meaning of the above will not change ("This New Year's ball is brighter and more fun than last time"). The introductory word conveys the opinion of other people, without pointing to a specific source.
You can give the same sentence emotional coloring by changing the introductory word:
"Fortunately, this New Year's Ball is brighter and more fun than last time." In this case, the introductory phrase “fortunately” conveys the attitude of the speaker to the subject of conversation. If this construction is removed, the proposal will not convey the author's emotions, but simply states the fact.
All sentences with introductory words have the same features.
Signs of introductory words
There are three main features of introductory words, phrases and constructions:
- First, they cannot be asked a question from other members of the proposal. Since there is no connection between them, respectively, the introductory words are separate parts within the sentence.
- Secondly, they can be easily replaced by suitable synonyms or other introductory words.
- Third, they do not carry a meaning, and if they are removed from the statement, its meaning will not change.
From these properties it is easy to determine whether the word is introductory or not. It is also important to know how to denote introductory words in a sentence.
Selection of introductory words
Since the introductory construct is not a member of a sentence and can be located in any part of it, it is distinguished by punctuation marks:
- When the opening words are at the beginning of a sentence, a comma is put after them.These are the most commonly used constructions in everyday speech. They pass the assessment to the event or indicate the one who reported them:
- "It seems it will rain soon" (uncertainty).
- “In my opinion, it will rain soon” (personal opinion).
- “They say it will rain soon” (transmission of other people's words).
- “Unfortunately, it will soon rain” (negative emotion).
- When the introductory construction consists of two words, one of which is omitted, a dash is put. For example: "On the one hand, all the details of the crime were on the face, on the other - there was no understanding how to bring them together."
- Sentences complicated by introductory words in the middle should include commas from two sides of the structure: "Nikolai Ivanovich, fortunately, managed to get on his plane."
- If two introductory words to enhance the emotional coloring of the text follow each other, then a comma is put between them: “It was not enough, perhaps, to get a reprimand for being absent from the workplace.”
- When the introductory word follows the composing union, the comma is not put between them: “Or maybe we’d better go to the cinema?”, “And the truth is, there will be more interesting than in a deserted park.”
- If the introductory word is inside a complex sentence divided by a union, then a comma is placed between them: "They brought the pension, but, unfortunately, I was not at home at that time."
Writers often introduce these designs into sentences. With the introductory words from the literature acquire a more intense artistic coloring. When the author wants to strengthen the speech of his hero or more clearly convey the conclusions to the reader, these elements in the text help him. For example, "So, she was called Tatiana." Introductory word Pushkin draws attention to the name of the heroine of the poem "Eugene Onegin".
Levels of introductory words
In their meaning, sentences with introductory words are divided according to the qualities they convey:
- Uncertainty or confidence - "of course", "maybe", "unconditionally", "seems" and many others. For example: "Maybe this Sunday we can go for a walk in the park."
- Feelings and emotions are conveyed by the words "fortunately", "unfortunately", "joy", "to the annoyance", "to the horror", "what good", "unfortunately," "strange thing" and others. "Unfortunately, the school director noticed us."
- The message about who sends the information - "say", "in my opinion", "in your opinion", "according to rumors", "remembered." "Today's concert is rumored to be awesome."
- The order or connection between phenomena is transmitted by the words "so", "therefore", "for example", "by the way", "first", "by the way", "finally" and many others. "Sasha, therefore, will not come to the name day."
- Assessment of the way of expression - “by word”, “to put it mildly”, “more precisely”, “if I may say so”, “more correctly”. "To put it mildly, we are all supposed to be fired."
- The call for who you are talking to is “believe,” “understand,” “imagine,” “imagine,” “forgive.” "Sorry, but I can not accept the work in this form."
There are words that are often confused with introductory words, but they are not distinguished by commas.
Words similar to introductory
It is necessary to distinguish sentences with introductory words, examples of which were cited above, from those constructions where they are not:
- The word "finally" can be an introductory, and can mean the end of a process or action. "Winter is finally over." "Finally they came."
- “So” can also have different meanings. "I have time to finish the work, then I will go for a walk." "For me, the word friend means more than the words of all my buddies."
- Depending on where the word “however” is in the sentence, it can be introductory (in the middle) or not (at the beginning). "The evening, however, turned out to be cool." "However, the evening was cool."
Also, words such as “little by little,” “suddenly,” “after all,” “just,” “like,” “like,” and others do not stand out and are not introductory.
Suggestions with similar introductory designs.
Sentences with interjections and introductory words equally impart an emotional tint to the text, but the difference between them is that these feelings express, but do not name, interjections. For example, the same feeling of regret can be expressed as:
- “Alas, at work, I don’t get a boost.” The feeling is expressed, but not indicated.
- “Unfortunately, at work, I don’t get a boost.” A clear feeling of regret.
Interjections are highlighted in the sentence in the same way as the introductory words, depending on where they are inserted.
Suggestions with introductory words can be extended to more fully convey the thought.
For this purpose, introductory constructions are used, which have their members of the proposal, but if they are removed, the washed text will not change: "At the end of the winter season, I think you can buy shoes cheaper."
Introductory sentences are distinguished in the same way as words, but if they are used for explanation, they can be bracketed or framed with a dash. For example:
“A private trader, a taxi was never caught, he drove us to the place.”
Although the introductory sentence is a separate construct that has its main and minor members, it can be easily removed from the text without harm to it.