Structure of the enterprise: characteristics and main types
The structure of the enterprise is the content and correlation of its internal links (laboratories, departments, sections, shops, etc.) that constitute a single object.
Scientists distinguish several of its types:
Let us consider them in more detail below.
The general structure of the enterprise is a collection:
- Non-productive (plots that provide for everyday life and life activity of employees - housing and communal services, canteens, kitchen factories, cupboards, day nurseries, kindergartens, medical units, sanatoriums, sports and training departments, etc.);
- production (plots, workshops and laboratories);
- managerial departments (chiefs of middle and large level).
Its formation is usually determined by the goals and policies of the organization.
The production structure of the enterprise includesthe workshops, sites, centers, laboratories, in which the manufacturing process takes place, control inspection and testing of products manufactured by the company. In addition, it includes departments that serve the main production and contain components, semi-finished products, materials and spare parts.
Factors that can affect the company's production structure are the following:
- the nature of the products;
- manufacturing technology;
- scale and volumes of production;
- Features of cooperation with other organizations;
- specialization of production within the company.
Organizational structure of the enterpriseis a system that determines the content, interaction and subordination of all elements. Usually it concerns the sphere of management. Elements of it are interconnected in a certain way, forming the types of organizational structures of the enterprise:
- Linear arise between departments of all levels in management, when the manager is administratively subordinated to another, occupying a higher position.
- Functional connections are distinguished by the fact that managers interact with each other on the basis of the functions performed at all levels; between them there is no administrative subordination.
- Cross-functional systems exist between departments at a single management level.
To achieve the company's success in the marketit is necessary to constantly improve the organizational structure of the enterprise. To achieve this goal, it is often necessary to completely reorganize it. In addition, the following measures are mandatory:
- the creation of a modern organizational management structure that is able to operate in a timely manner on the Russian market;
- to provide prompt response to emerging changes in the external environment and to implement strategic management that contributes to effective long-term work;
- the release of the CEO from routine and routine work, which is related to the organization of the company's functioning;
- establishment of rational links between the levels and levels of government at all levels;
- it is recommended to minimize the number of steps in the management structure;
- granting authority to resolve problems to the head of the unit, which has more complete information on all issues;
- increase the efficiency in decisions taken.
In order to strengthen management functions, it is necessary to introduce:
- groups of innovations;
- development departments that increase market flexibility and competitiveness.
In modern practice, the most complex system of an enterprise is encountered, that is, a combination of existing and identified above types existing at different stages of company management.