Special Forces "Vityaz": training, photo
In the entire history of Russia, quite a few divisions were engaged in anti-terrorism activities and the release of hostages. One of them was the 1st Red Banner Detachment which is better known as the Vityaz special forces.
When was the unit formed?
The 1980 Olympics in Moscow demanded that the government and law enforcement agencies take special precautions. Work began in this direction since 1978. As a result, an educational sports company URSN was created in a separate motorized rifle division of operational assignment named after F. Dzerzhinsky. Members of the personnel of this unit were to ensure the safety of the highest ranks of the country and guests during the Olympic Games. The structure of the special chain included officers, ensigns, sergeants and conscripts. By order of the Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, the criteria for selection were: a high level of discipline and physical fitness, as well as moral and psychological qualities necessary for work.In 1989, this training company became the basis for the creation of a special purpose battalion, whose personnel were engaged to perform the most complex combat missions. In May 1991, by order of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, special forces of the Vityaz special forces were formed from the personnel of this training battalion.
Staff members of the Vityaz special forces were engaged in the following tasks:
- Prevented terrorist attacks.
- Free hostages.
- We were engaged in the protection of important public facilities, special cargo, government buildings and communication facilities.
After the Vityaz special forces had been formed, the question arose of how to distinguish the staff of this unit from others. For this purpose, various special forces used berets. The berets of each unit differed from each other in their color. The servicemen, of which consisted of special forces "Vityaz", wore spotted berets. This color is a symbol of blood spilled by internal service officers during their combat missions. According to many veterans who have passed the Chechen campaign, only the best are worthy of wearing spotted berets.
Only well-trained servicemen could achieve high results.Not a single "krapovik" fell into the hands of Chechen militants for the entire period of the war, while on the territory of the rebellious republic the Vityaz special forces performed their tasks. The photo below represents the appearance of the beret.
The beginning of the test
To determine who is worthy to wear this headgear, it was possible by examining military personnel. From the very beginning of the introduction in the division of the krapovogo beret such exams were held behind the scenes. This is explained by the fact that the idea of “chosenness” was not welcomed by the highest military command. Only in 1993, General Kulikov, commander of the Interior Ministry troops, approved the provision “On the qualification tests of servicemen for the right to wear the maroon beret”.
How is special forces "Vityaz" examined?
Surrender to the maroon beret consists of several stages:
- Test At this stage fire, physical and tactical training is checked. In order for the soldier of the internal troops to get admission to the next stages, he must pass all the disciplines as “excellent”. This lesson is a control and verification, necessary in order to avoid unpleasant incidents. As experience shows, already in the first phase of testing a large number of applicants are eliminated.
- At the second stage, the candidate in full calculation (in a bullet-proof vest, in a helmet, with a machine gun) must perform a march of twelve kilometers with overcoming obstacles.
- The third stage is to overcome the subjects fiery assault strip. At the end of this stage, examiners assess the readiness of a candidate’s weapon for admission to the Vityaz special forces.
- High-altitude training is checked at the fourth stage. Acrobatic testing shows examiners the level of gymnastic skills of candidates.
In addition, as part of its combat mission, the claimant to the maroon beret must take the high-rise building by storm. This will give examiners an insight into how to use hand-to-hand combat and the acrobatic skills of the test. The test candidate is carried out in the most stringent conditions. At the end of the work, examiners also reveal the ability of the subject to work in a team. Many applicants mistakenly believe that during the exam only endurance and possession of hand-to-hand combat techniques are tested. But, as experience shows, modern military conflicts are resolved mostly without hand-to-hand.If it reached her, this means, as experienced specialists of special divisions believe, in the work of the detachment errors were made somewhere.
The exam ends with a twelve-minute battle with several opponents. Usually for this purpose, four people are selected as opponents of a candidate, one of whom already has a spotted beret. The main thing that is required of the subject is not only to survive in a duel, but also to be active, to demonstrate to the examiners all their skills. If the candidate for the “spotted berets” behaves passively during the fight, he can be removed from the test. Statistics show that of all those who wish to get into the special squad, only thirty percent receive berets.
After the candidate has passed all stages, examiners (instructors, officers and ensigns - owners of spotted berets) at the council evaluate each applicant.
By the end of 2000, the reconnaissance battalions and special forces detachments differed little from each other. The staff members of the special forces of the internal troops and intelligence began by this time to prepare for a special program designed for the Main Intelligence Directorate.During training, instructors focus on the moral and psychological qualities of their players. The ability to sacrifice their individual interests in favor of the Motherland and comrades is developing. During the training, the emphasis is on developing courage and endurance among servicemen. In carrying out their anti-terrorism activities, Vityaz employees often have to carry their comrades out of the battlefield and search the bandits who were killed by a grenade. According to testimonials from veterans of the Vityaz who participated in the conflicts in Central Asia and the Caucasus, searching the mutilated corpses is very difficult psychologically. In order to mentally prepare their employees, the Vityaz instructor conducts trips to hospitals and morgues: special forces soldiers should not be afraid of blood. In any setting, they must remain calm.
What is “knocking out”?
Not so easy to pass the exam and get the net takes. But as the special forces veterans testify, it is much more difficult to wear it with dignity. Those employees of the detachment who have committed some kind of a big misdemeanor are threatened with the procedure of “knocking out” - a ritual, after which the violator loses his speckles. This event is held on the parade ground.The commander announces the order to deprive the guilty maroon beret, then tears it off his head. Soldiers, built on the parade ground, turn their backs to the violator.
Special Forces "Vityaz", Balashikha (training center)
In 2008, the training programs of such units as Vityaz and Rus were taken as the basis for the new 604th Special Forces Center, which has great combat capabilities: it carries out parachute training and training of combat swimmers.
For the training of future employees of mobile groups, bodyguards and collectors, a special training center of the special forces Vityaz was established in the city of Balashikha, ten kilometers from Moscow, with a very effective training base and forest lands that are used in the educational process. The training is conducted by professional instructors, retired military personnel who previously constituted security agencies.
The special forces center "Vityaz" has two buildings: the main and academic. The main building is a dining room, gym, classroom and bedroom.
In the educational building are located:
- Shooting galleries number 1 and 2.
- The current model of the elevator.
- Special equipment room.
- Shooting range (situational multimedia).
- Gallery for tactical and fire training.
- Meeting room.
In addition to the educational building, the center is equipped with special facilities, which are a training complex. Includes:
The actions of the trainees are evaluated objectively by the center manager. This is possible due to the peculiar architecture and layout of buildings, installed video surveillance equipment in each room and even on the flight of stairs.
What is being taught?
In the Vityaz center, the instructors teach the following disciplines: legal training, special tactical, special fire, physical, medical, psychological and route training. The latter is the development of special driving techniques by students. In addition, instructors are taught to use special equipment.
The special-purpose squad Vityaz submits to the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation. This anti-terrorism unit went down in history as one of the best.