Sociology as a science: the main directions of development and modern trends.
The society in which we live creates manyquestions about the meaning of life, the causes of the emergence of certain relations and phenomena of social life. Sociology as a science about society, the laws of its development, social relations and social institutions accumulates the thoughts and ideas of philosophers, politicians, educators, natural scientists, writers and representatives of other areas of scientific knowledge.
Sociology as a science differs from otherssocial sciences, the application of scientific methods to the study of society, the significant practical use of sociological research in the functioning of society.
In Russia, directly sociological theoriesbegan to form from the middle of the nineteenth century. Sociology as a science develops in various directions, which form scientific schools. When analyzing the history of society, its structure, the specifics of the development of social relations, sociologists choose different general scientific approaches: demographic, psychological, group, culturological and others.
It should be noted that throughout theperiod of development of Russian sociology, the formation of sociological concepts and theories had a tremendous impact on the work of Western sociologists. These include the founder of sociology, O. Kont, who proposed the term "sociology", the concept of "system," and substantiated the stages of historical development. No less influential for Russian sociology were the ideas of E. Durkheim, M. Weber. And the works of Karl Marx became the foundations for the political ideology of Russia during almost seven-year-old historical period. However, we can talk about the mutual influence of domestic and Western sociology. Russian sociologists N.Ya. Danilevsky, N.K. Mikhailovsky, P.L. Lavrov, V.I. Lenin, G.V. Plekhanov, P.A. Sorokin made a significant contribution to the development of world sociological thought.
Among the most common directions of developmentsociology distinguish social philosophy. It is based on the search for universal laws of social development. The idea of cultural and historical types of society, based on the cultures of different nations (for example, the culture of the peoples of the world) is the central idea, which was addressed by representatives of various currents in this direction (O. Spengler, A. Toynbi, N. Danilevsky, P. Sorokin) Egyptian, Babylonian, Greco-Roman, Mayan culture, Russian-Siberian, Slavic, Jewish, and others). Some sociologists suggest the impossibility of long-term coexistence of different cultures, which should develop on an individual path.
Another direction in the development of sociology is Marxism- brought together conflictological theories based on economic struggle, ideological confrontation of various social groups. Marxism in the interpretation of VI Lenin and his supporters played a decisive role in the historical development of Russia.
In Western sociology, neo-Marxism(Germany, 30th years of the twentieth century). From the ideas of alienation of man, the rejection of ideology, neo-Marxism in modern sociology confirms the idea of the impossibility of eliminating conflicts between social groups: the struggle for power, for spiritual leadership, rivalry in the redistribution of incomes, which are the main reasons for the development of society.
Modern sociology as a science is activeis formed within the framework of a technocratic direction, quite popular in Western and domestic sociological circles. One of the trends is the globalization of modern sociology. The pure isolation of the European and American lines of development of sociological science, which manifested itself in the middle of the twentieth century, is being erased on the present day. Common human problems compel sociologists to join forces. On the other hand, it is obvious that both the evolutionary and conflictological principle of the development of society takes place in history. Therefore, the integration of various sociological theories becomes an objective necessity in the development of sociology. Undoubtedly, the importance of sociology for the development of modern society is great. It influences the formation of public opinion, the adoption of political decisions.
In the structure of modern sociology, various branches of sociological knowledge are actively developing: the sociology of youth, the sociology of organizations, the sociology of knowledge, the sociology of religion, and others.