Smoot: causes and the beginning. Smoot in Russia, 17th century
The beginning of the XVII century was marked for Russia by a series of ordeals.
As began distemper
After Tsar Ivan the Terrible died in 1584, the throne was inherited by his son Fyodor Ivanovich, who was very weak and painful. Due to his state of health, he ruled for a short time - from 1584 to 1598. Fyodor Ivanovich died early, without leaving any heirs. The younger son of Ivan the Terrible was allegedly stabbed by the minions of Boris Godunov. There are many who want to take the reins in their hands. As a result of this, a struggle for power has developed within the country. Such a situation was the impetus for the development of such a phenomenon as Smoot. The reasons and the beginning of this period at different times were interpreted in their own way. Despite this, one can identify the main events and aspects that influenced the development of these events.
Of course, first of all it is the interruption of the dynasty of Rurikovich. From this point on, the central authority, which has passed into the hands of third parties, loses credibility in the eyes of the people. The constant increase in taxes also served as a catalyst for dissatisfaction of citizens and peasants.For such a protracted phenomenon, as Smoot, the reasons have accumulated more than one year. This could include the consequences of the oprichnina, the economic disruption after the Livonian War. The last drop was a sharp deterioration in living conditions associated with the drought of 1601-1603. Smoot was for the external forces the most opportune moment for the elimination of state independence of Russia.
Background from the point of view of historians
Not only the weakening of the monarchy regime contributed to the emergence of such a phenomenon as Smoot. Its reasons are connected with the intertwining of aspirations and actions of various political forces and social masses, which were complicated by the intervention of external forces. Due to the fact that at the same time there were many adverse factors, the country plunged into a deep crisis.
For the occurrence of such a phenomenon as Smoot, the reasons can be identified as follows:
1. The crisis of the economy, which falls on the end of the XVI century. It was caused by the decline of peasants in the city, an increase in tax and feudal oppression. The situation worsened the famine of 1601-1603, as a result of which about half a million people died.
2. The dynasty crisis. After the death of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, the struggle of various boyars intensified.clans for the right to stand in power. During this period, Boris Godunov (from 1598 to 1605), Fedor Godunov (April 1605 - June 1605), False Dmitry I (from June 1605 to May 1606) visited the state throne, Vasily Shuisky (from 1606 to 1610), Lzhedmitry II (from 1607 to 1610) and Seven Boyars (from 1610 to 1611).
3. The spiritual crisis. The desire of the Catholic religion to impose its will ended with the schism of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Internal turmoil marked the beginning of the peasant wars, the revolts of cities.
The difficult struggle for power between representatives of the highest nobility ended in victory for Boris Godunov - the royal brother-in-law. This was the first case in Russian history, when the throne was not inherited, but as a result of the victory in the elections in the Zemsky Sobor. In general, in the seven years of his rule, Godunov was able to resolve disputes and disagreements with Poland and Sweden, and also established cultural and economic relations with the countries of Western Europe.
His domestic policy also brought its results in the form of the advancement of Russia to Siberia. However, soon the situation in the country deteriorated. It was caused by crop failures in the period from 1601 to 1603.
Godunov took all possible measures to alleviate such a difficult situation.He organized public works, gave permission for slaves to leave their masters, organized the distribution of bread to the starving. Despite this, as a result of the abolition in 1603 of the law on the temporary restoration of St. George's Day, an uprising of serfs broke out, initiating a peasant war.
Aggravation of the internal situation
The most dangerous stage of the Peasant War was the uprising led by Ivan Bolotnikov. The war spread to the south-west and south of Russia. The rebels defeated the troops of the new tsar - Vasily Shuisky - by going to the siege of Moscow in October-December 1606. They stopped their internal differences, as a result of which the rebels were forced to retreat to Kaluga.
The right moment of the attack on Moscow for the Polish princes was the Troubles of the early 17th century. The reasons for the intervention attempts lay in the impressive support given to the princes False Dmitry I and False Dmitry II, who were completely subordinate to foreign accomplices. The ruling circles of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Catholic Church made attempts to dismember Russia and eliminate its state independence.
The next stage in the split of the country was the formation of territories that recognized the power of False Dmitry II, and those that remained loyal to Vasily Shuisky.
According to some historians, the main reasons for such a phenomenon as Smoot lay in lack of law, imposture, internal division of the country and intervention. This time was the first civil war in Russian history. Before the Troubles appeared in Russia, its causes were formed more than one year. Prerequisites were associated with oprichnina and the consequences of the Livonian war. The country's economy had already been ravaged by that time, and tensions were growing in the social strata.
Since 1611, there has been an increase in patriotic sentiment, accompanied by calls for an end to strife and the strengthening of unity. It was organized by the national militia. However, only from the second attempt under the leadership of K. Minin and K. Pozharsky in the autumn of 1611 Moscow was liberated. The new king was elected 16-year-old Mikhail Romanov.
Colossal territorial losses brought Smoot in the 17th century. Its reasons mainly consisted in weakening the authority of the centralized power in the eyes of the people, forming opposition.Despite this, having gone through years of loss and hardship, internal fragmentation and civil strife under the leadership of impostors, impostors and adventurers, nobles, townspeople and peasants came to the conclusion that power can only be in unity.