Raznochinets is a new estate in Russia of the XIX century
In the 40s of the XIX century a new estate appeared,played a prominent role in the cultural and social life of the Russian Empire. The influence of this stratum of the population in the following years was different both in terms of impact and intensity. Starry can be considered the 60-ies of the XIX century, when it became known such names as Chernyshevsky, Repin, Dobrolyubov, Pisarev and others.
The emergence of raznochinstva as a subclass inThe Russian Empire falls at the end of the XVIII century. It is then that in official documents and in personal correspondence the word "raznochinets" appears. This is a rather motley social group, which included the descendants of their clergy, philistinism, merchants, wealthy peasants. The new estate included also children of retired soldiers and officers, descendants of personal noblemen.
The prototype of the intelligentsia
In the modern understanding, the raznochinets isrepresentative of the democratic opposition of the middle of the XIX century. The social phenomenon of this phenomenon is indicative of the fact that every representative of this class turned out to be a raznochintsy in the first generation. In this class fell people who fell from other classes. In this respect, the clergy turned out to be particularly generous. Descendants of priests among raznochintsy was so much that Herzen to the generation of the 60's gave the nickname "generation of seminarians". Possessing neither capital, nor ties, nor land, they nevertheless received a good education and were forced to live by their labor. Raznochinets is a journalist, a doctor, an interpreter, a free teacher, a writer or a publicist. Here is the main list of professions that representatives of the new estate chose.
Rights and freedoms
The social situation of raznochintsy was largelyambiguous. According to the definition of V. Dal, a raznochinets is a man of an exempt social class without a personal nobility. Persons belonging to this estate did not have the right to own property, but had a list of personal freedoms available only to noblemen. As a rule, raznochintsy neglected the state service, although, according to Tabel's ranks, they could apply for nobility when they received the corresponding rank.
The spirit of freedom and the lack of social roots among the raznochintsy have become the source of new ideas for transforming statehood in the Russian Empire.Democrats-raznochintsy pawned in the state reconstruction really cardinal transformations, among which was:
- destruction of the existing world order;
- a new social order;
- Education of a new person.
These ideas are embodied in literary andworks of art. Heroes raznochintsy known to us from the works of Turgenev, Chernyshevsky, Dostoevsky. The declaration of new values resulted in the movement of nihilism, and the desire to transform the existing order of things into the emergence of a multitude of secret societies that aimed at overthrowing the state system. It was the environment of the raznochintsy that gave birth to a whole generation of anarchists and revolutionaries, who at the beginning of the 20th century became the basis for the revolutionary movement in Russia.