Pulmonary thromboembolism: symptoms, treatment. Thromboembolism - what is it?
Unfortunately, many people face a pathology called thromboembolism. What it is? How dangerous can it be? What are the consequences? What symptoms are accompanied? These are the main questions that many people are interested in.
Thromboembolism - what is it?
According to statistics, it is this pathology that is one of the most common causes of death for patients. So why does thromboembolism develop? What it is?
A similar condition is accompanied by blockage of the lumen of the vessel with a blood clot. In such cases, the blood clot blocks the blood flow, as a result of which ischemia develops in organs or tissues — original targets (which were provided with blood from a clogged vessel).
Immediately it is worth noting that for the most part such a pathology arises sharply and develops rapidly, therefore, in this case, timely diagnosis and treatment are very important.
The main causes of the disease
Thromboembolism is not an independent disease. As a rule, pathology occurs as a complication compared to other ailments. Accurately determine the probability of clogging of the vessel is very difficult. Nevertheless, there are some risk factors in which patients are recommended to be closely monitored.
Quite often thromboembolism develops against the background of diseases of the cardiovascular system, including atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy. Also, pathology occurs in people suffering from bleeding disorders, lung cancer and stomach.
Other conditions are also factors of risk, in particular:
- chronic heart and respiratory failure;
- long stay in a motionless state (for example, a long bed rest, the postoperative period);
- chronic hypertension;
- pregnancy and recovery period after childbirth;
- varicose veins (stagnation of blood in the veins creates conditions for the formation of clots);
- surgical intervention and rehabilitation period;
- some cancers (sometimes the development of a malignant tumor increases the likelihood of clots);
- injuries, including violations of the integrity of the spine, spinal cord, and bone fractures;
- heavy bleeding;
- severe burns and frostbite.
By the way, according to statistics, this pathology is diagnosed in women twice as often as in men.
Varieties of pathology
Many patients are interested in questions about how dangerous thromboembolism. What is it and why does it arise? Immediately it should be said that this pathology can affect different vessels. For example, in some patients there is a blockage in the vessels of the lower limb, while in others the blood flow to the heart, kidneys, brain, etc., is blocked.
Naturally, blood clots can clog vessels of various sizes, both small and large. The most common and dangerous is pulmonary thromboembolism, which is often accompanied by a sharp attack, and sometimes almost instantaneous death of the patient.
Signs and effects of thromboembolism
In fact, arterial or vein thromboembolism may be accompanied by different symptoms, since everything depends on the location of the thrombus and the site of tissue ischemia.For example, if the pathology struck the vessels of the lower extremity, then thrombophlebitis develops, and then gangrene develops.
If the blockage occurs in the vessels carrying blood to the abdominal cavity, patients may complain of acute abdominal pain, dizziness, vomiting, general weakness, etc. The effects of the blockage may be ischemia of the intestine, kidney, damage to other organs of the abdominal cavity. Occlusion of the blood vessels that provide blood flow to the brain leads to a stroke. In a word, thromboembolism is a really dangerous condition.
Pulmonary thromboembolism: symptoms
This kind of pathology is accompanied by very characteristic signs. Lightning and acute pulmonary thromboembolism begins abruptly - the patient begins to choke, the skin turns pale, and the cyanosis of the ears, neck, face, upper body is often observed. Blood pressure decreases, sharp chest pains appear, the patient loses consciousness.
With a protracted form of the disease, which is accompanied by blockage of large and medium-sized branches of the pulmonary artery, the symptoms appear gradually, sometimes over several weeks. The patient complains of constant shortness of breath, intermittent weakness, deterioration of health, frequent fainting.
In the presence of the signs described above, you need to call an ambulance as soon as possible. Unfortunately, it is impossible to provide first aid to a patient with a similar pathology.
Already in the hospital, after examination and diagnostic measures, doctors will be able to take the necessary measures. Quite often, the patient is administered Heparin or other drugs that thin the blood and promote the resorption of blood clots. If necessary, resuscitation measures are held.
What treatments are available?
Only a doctor can diagnose a patient with a thromboembolism. Treatment in this case directly depends on the cause of the development of the pathology and the patient's condition. Therapy can be both conservative and operative.
Some patients will only need to undergo drug treatment. They are prescribed a whole range of drugs, including Heparin (intravenously), urokinase, streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. This therapy is aimed at the complete resorption of blood clots. During medication is very important to monitor the patient's condition. On the other hand, such therapy is contraindicated if there is a risk of massive bleeding (for example, if the patient suffers from a peptic ulcer of the stomach or intestines).
There are some other methods that are used especially often if a patient has been diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism. The treatment in this case may be surgical. Using special devices, the doctor removes blood clots from blood vessels, restoring blood flow. An open operation is performed if an occlusion of the trunk or large branches of the artery occurs.
Is there effective prevention?
Thromboembolism is an extremely dangerous pathology. Unfortunately, in most cases, the prognosis for patients is not too favorable, since even with timely and correct therapy, the likelihood of disability is high.
Specific prophylaxis is recommended for patients from risk groups, in particular the elderly, patients who have undergone surgery, as well as those who suffer from thrombosis. In such cases, it is recommended to regularly undergo an ultrasound examination of the vessels, and also to take anticoagulants as needed. Some patients are prescribed the installation of special vascular filters that stop the movement of blood clots.