Partisans of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945: the list
When the Great Patriotic War struck, the press of the Land of the Soviets gave rise to a completely new expression - “people's avengers”. They were called the Soviet partisans. This movement was very large-scale and brilliantly organized. In addition, it was officially legalized. The aim of the avengers was to destroy the infrastructure of the enemy army, disrupt food and weapons supplies and destabilize the entire fascist machine. The German military leader Guderian admitted that the actions of the guerrillas of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 (the names of some will be presented to your attention in the article) became a real curse for the nazi troops and strongly influenced the morale of the “liberators”.
Legalization of the movement of the partisans
The formation of partisan units in the territories occupied by the Nazis began immediately after Germany attacked the Soviet cities. So, the government of the USSR published two relevant directives. The documents reported that it was necessary to create resistance among the people in order to help the Red Army.In one words, the Soviet Union approved the formation of partisan groups.
After one year, this process was already in full swing. It was then that Stalin issued a special order. It communicated the methods and main activities of the underground.
And in the late spring of 1942, partisan detachments decided to legalize them altogether. In any case, the government has formed a so-called. The central headquarters of this movement. And all regional organizations began to obey only to him.
In addition, the post of Commander in Chief appeared. This post was taken by Marshal Clement Voroshilov. True, he led only two months, because the post was abolished. From now on, the "people's avengers" submitted directly to the military commander-in-chief.
Geography and scale of movement
In the first six months of the war, eighteen underground obkoms worked. Also, more than 260 city committees, regional committees, district committees and other party groups and organizations acted.
Exactly one year later, a third of the formations of the partisans of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, whose list of names is very long, could already go on the air by radio contact with the Center. And in 1943, almost 95 percent of the units could support the mainland with radios.
In all, during the war there were almost six thousand partisan formations of more than one million people.
These detachments existed in almost all the occupied territories. True, it happened that the partisans did not support anyone - neither the Nazis nor the Bolsheviks. They simply defended the independence of their own separate region.
Usually in one partisan formation there were several dozen fighters. But over time, there were detachments in which there were several hundred people. Honestly, there were very few such groups.
Detachments united in the so-called. brigade. The purpose of this merger was one - to provide effective resistance to the Nazis.
The guerrillas, mostly used light weapons. This refers to machine guns, rifles, light machine guns, carbines and grenades. In a number of formations in service were mortars, machine guns and even artillery. When people joined the detachments, they must take the oath of partisans. Of course, tough military discipline was observed.
We note that such groups were formed not only in the rear of the enemy.Repeatedly, the future "avengers" officially studied in special partisan schools. After that, they were transferred to the occupied territories and formed not only partisan detachments, but also formations. Often, these groups were staffed by soldiers.
Partisans of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 successfully managed to carry out several large operations in the same bundle with the Red Army. Operation Rail War was the largest campaign in terms of results and the number of participants. The central headquarters had to cook it for quite a long time and thoroughly. The developers planned to undermine the rails in some of the occupied territories in order to paralyze traffic on the railways. Partisans from the Orlovsky, Smolensky, Kalininsky, Leningrad regions, as well as Ukraine and Belarus participated in the operation. In general, about 170 partisan formations were involved in the “rail war”.
The night of August 1943, the operation began. In the first hours of the "national avengers" was able to undermine nearly 42 thousand rails. Such diversions continued until September, inclusive. In one month, the number of explosions increased 30 times!
Another famous operation of the partisans was called "Concert". In fact, it was a continuation of the “rail battles”, since the Crimea, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia and Karelia were connected to the explosions on the railway. In an unexpected “Concert” for the Hitlerites, nearly 200 partisan formations participated!
Legendary Kovpak and Mikhailo from Azerbaijan
Over time, the names of some partisans of the Great Patriotic War and the exploits of these people became known to all. So, Mehdi Ganifa-oglu Husein-zade from Azerbaijan is partisan in Italy. In the squadron his name was simply “Mikhailo”.
He was mobilized into the Red Army from his student days. He had to take part in the legendary Battle of Stalingrad, where he was wounded. He was captured and sent to a camp in Italy. After some time, in 1944, he managed to escape. There he stumbled upon a partisan. In the detachment, “Mikhailo” was a commissar of a company of Soviet soldiers.
He recognized intelligence, engaged in sabotage, blowing up enemy airfields and bridges. And one day his company raided the prison. As a result, 700 captured soldiers were released.
"Mikhailo" died in one of the raids. He defended to the end, and then shot himself.Unfortunately, they only learned about his daring exploits after the war.
But the famous Sidor Kovpak became a legend in his lifetime. He was born and raised in Poltava in a poor peasant family. During the First World War, he was awarded the St. George Cross. Moreover, the Russian autocrat himself awarded him.
During the Civil War, he fought with the Germans and whites.
From 1937, he was appointed head of the city executive committee of Putivl in the Sumy region. When the war began, he led a partisan group in the city, and later - and the connection of units of the Sumy region.
The participants of its formation literally continuously carried out combat raids in the occupied territories. The total length of the raids is more than 10 thousand km. In addition, nearly forty enemy garrisons were destroyed.
In the second half of 1942, Kovpak detachments raided the Dnieper. By this time, there were two thousand fighters in the organization.
In the middle of the winter of 1943, a corresponding medal was instituted. It was called "Partisan of the Patriotic War." Over the following years, she was awarded almost 150 thousand partisans of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945).The exploits of these people forever entered our history.
One of the award winners was Matvey Kuzmin. By the way, he was the oldest guerrilla. When the war began, he exchanged already ninth ten.
Kuzmin was born in 1858 in the Pskov region. He lived in isolation, on a collective farm he was never a member, he was engaged in fishing and hunting. Besides, he knew his area very well.
During the war, he was in the occupation. The Nazis even occupied his house. There began to live a German officer who led one of the battalions.
In the middle of the winter of 1942, Kuzmin had to become a conductor. He must lead a battalion to a village occupied by Soviet troops. But before that, the old man managed to send his grandson to warn the Red Army men.
As a result, Kuzmin drove the frozen Nazis through the forest for a long time and only the next morning brought them, but not to the desired point, but to the ambush that the Soviet fighters staged. Invaders came under fire. Unfortunately, the hero guide also died in this shootout. He was 83.
Children-partisans of the Great Patriotic War (1941 - 1945)
When the war was going on, the real army of children fought along with the soldiers. They were participants of this universal resistance from the very beginning of the occupation. According to some information, several tens of thousands of minors took part in it.It was an amazing “movement”!
For military merit adolescents awarded military orders and medals. Thus, several underage partisans received the highest award - the title of Heroes of the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, basically, they all honored him posthumously.
Their names are familiar for a long time - Valya Kotik, Lenya Golikov, Marat Kazei ... But there were other little heroes whose feats were not so widely covered in the press ...
“Baby” was called Alyosha Vyalova. The local avengers, he enjoyed particular sympathy. He was eleven when the war broke out.
He began partisaning with his older sisters. This family group managed to set fire to Vitebsk railway station three times. They also arranged an explosion at the police station. On occasion, they were connected and helped distribute the relevant leaflets.
The partisans learned about the existence of Vyalov in unexpected ways. The fighters greatly needed gun oil. The “kid” was already aware of this and, on his own initiative, brought a couple of liters of the necessary liquid.
Lesha died after the war from tuberculosis.
Tikhon Baran from the Brest region began to fight when he was nine.So, in the summer of 41 in the parental home, the underground workers equipped a secret printing press. Members of the organization printed leaflets with front-line reports, and the boy distributed them.
For two years he continued to do this, but the fascists went on the trail of the underground workers. Mom Tikhon and her sisters managed to escape from their relatives, and the young avenger went into the forest and joined the partisan formation.
Once he visited relatives. At the same time, the Nazis arrived in the village, who shot all the inhabitants. And Tikhon was offered to save his life if he showed the way to the detachment.
As a result, the boy led the enemy into a swamp. Punishers killed him, but not everyone got out of this quagmire themselves ...
Instead of an epilogue
Soviet heroes-guerrillas of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) became one of the main forces that offered real resistance to the enemies. By and large, in many respects it was the avengers who helped decide the outcome of this terrible war. They fought on a par with regular combat units. No wonder the Germans called the “second front” not only the allied units in Europe, but also partisan detachments in the territories of the USSR occupied by the Nazis. And this is probably an important circumstance ...ListThe guerrillas of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 are huge, and each of them deserves attention and memory ... We present to your attention only a small list of people who have left their mark on history:
- BiseniekAnastasia Alexandrovna.
- VasilievNikolai Grigorievich.
- VinokourovAlexander Arkhipovich.
- HermannAlexander Viktorovich.
- GolikovLeonid Aleksandrovich.
- GrigorievAlexander G.
- GrigorievGrigory Petrovich.
- YegorovVladimir Vasilievich.
- ZinovievVasily Ivanovich.
- KaritskyKonstantin Dionisievich.
- KuzminMatvey Kuzmich.
- NazarovaClaudia Ivanovna.
- NikitinIvan Nikitich.
- PetrovaAntonina Vasilyevna.
- BadVasily Pavlovich.
- SerguninIvan Ivanovich.
- SokolovDmitry Ivanovich.
- CockroachesAlexey Fedorovich.
- KharchenkoMikhail Semenovich.