Mineral salts and their significance
We all know that to maintain the health of our body, we need proteins, carbohydrates, fats and, of course, water. Mineral salts are also an important component of food, playing the role of participants in metabolic processes, catalysts for biochemical reactions.
A significant part of the useful substances are chloride, carbonate, phosphate salts of sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium. In addition to them, the body contains compounds of copper, zinc, iron, manganese, iodine, cobalt and other elements. The nutrients in the aquatic environment dissolve and exist in the form of ions.
Types of mineral salts
Salts can break down into positive and negative ions. The first are called cations (charged particles of various metals), the second - anions. Negatively charged phosphoric acid ions form a phosphate buffer system, the main importance of which is to regulate the pH of urine and interstitial fluid. Carbonic anions form a bicarbonate buffer system that is responsible for lung activity and maintains the pH of the blood plasma at the right level.Thus, the mineral salts, the composition of which is represented by various ions, have their unique value. For example, they are involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, nucleotides, hemoglobin, ATP, chlorophyll, and so on.
The group of macronutrients includes ions of sodium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and chlorine. These elements should be eaten in sufficient quantities. What is the importance of mineral salts in the macro group? We'll figure out.
Sodium and chlorine salts
One of the most common compounds that a person consumes every day is table salt. The substance consists of sodium and chlorine. The first regulates the amount of fluid in the body, and the second, combining with a hydrogen ion, forms the hydrochloric acid of the stomach. Sodium has an effect on the growth of the body and the work of the heart. The lack of an element can lead to apathy and weakness, can cause hardening of the walls of the arteries, the formation of gallstones, as well as involuntary muscle twitching. An excess of sodium chloride leads to the formation of edema. During the day, you must eat no more than 2 grams of salt.
For the activity of the brain is responsible for this ion.Element helps to increase concentration, memory development. It supports the excitability of muscle and nerve tissue, water-salt balance, blood pressure. Also, the ion catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine and regulates osmotic pressure. With a deficit of potassium salts, a person feels disorientation, drowsiness, reflexes are disturbed, and mental activity decreases. The element is contained in many products, for example, in vegetables, fruits, nuts.
Calcium and phosphorus salts
Calcium ion is involved in the stabilization of the membranes of brain cells, as well as nerve cells. The element is responsible for the normal development of bones, it is necessary for blood clotting, helps to remove lead and heavy metals from the body. Ion is the main source of blood saturation with alkaline salts, which contributes to the maintenance of vital activity. Human glands that secrete hormones normally should always contain a sufficient amount of calcium ions, otherwise the body will begin to age prematurely. Children need this ion three times more than adults. An excess of calcium can cause kidney stones.Lack of it causes cessation of breathing, as well as a significant deterioration of the heart.
Phosphorus ion is responsible for generating energy from nutrients. When it interacts with calcium and vitamin D, the functions of the brain and nerve tissues are activated. Deficiency of phosphorus ions can delay the development of bones. It should be consumed no more than 1 gram per day. For the body, the favorable ratio of this element and calcium is one to one. An excess of phosphorus ions can cause various tumors.
Mineral salts in the cell decompose into various ions, one of which is magnesium. The element is indispensable in protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Magnesium ion is involved in the conduction of impulses along the nerve fibers, stabilizes the cell walls of nerve cells, thereby protecting the body from the effects of stress. Element regulates the bowels. With a lack of magnesium, a person suffers from memory impairment, loses the ability to concentrate his attention for a long time, becomes irritable and nervous. A day is enough to use 400 milligrams of magnesium.
The group of trace elements includes ions of cobalt, copper, iron, chromium, fluorine, zinc, iodine, selenium, manganese and silicon. The listed elements are necessary for the body in minimal quantities.
Salts of iron, fluorine, iodine
The daily requirement for iron ion is only 15 milligrams. This element is part of hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to the tissues and cells from the lungs. With a lack of iron, anemia appears.
In the composition of the tooth enamel, bones, muscles, blood and brain there are fluoride ions. With a lack of this element, the teeth lose their strength and begin to break down. At the moment, the problem of fluorine deficiency is solved using toothpastes with its content, as well as the use of a sufficient number of products rich in fluorine (nuts, cereals, fruits, and others).
Iodine is responsible for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland, thereby regulating the metabolism. With its deficiency, goiter develops and immunity decreases. With a lack of iodine ions in children there is a delay in growth and development. The excess ion of the element causes Basedow's disease, there is also a general weakness, irritability, weight loss, muscle atrophy.
Copper and Zinc salts
Copper in collaboration with iron ion saturates the body with oxygen.Therefore, copper deficiency causes impaired hemoglobin synthesis, development of anemia. The lack of an element can lead to various diseases of the cardiovascular system, the occurrence of bronchial asthma and mental disorders. An excess of copper ions provoke violations of the central nervous system. The patient complains of depression, memory loss, insomnia. The excess element is more common in the body of workers in the production of copper. In this case, the ions enter the body by inhaling vapors, which leads to such a phenomenon as copper fever. Copper is able to accumulate in the brain tissue, as well as in the liver, skin, pancreas, causing various body disorders. A person needs 2.5 milligrams of an element per day.
A number of properties of copper ions are associated with zinc ions. In a pair, they participate in the activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which has antioxidant, antiviral, antiallergic and anti-inflammatory actions. Zinc ions are involved in protein and fat metabolism. It is part of the majority of hormones and enzymes, manages the biochemical bonds between the brain cells.Zinc ions fight alcohol intoxication.
According to some scientists, the deficiency of the element can cause fear, depression, speech disorders, difficulties in movement. An excess of ion is formed by the uncontrolled use of preparations containing zinc, including ointments, as well as when working on the production of this element. A large number of substances leads to a decrease in immunity, impaired functions of the liver, prostate, pancreas.
The value of mineral salts containing ions of copper and zinc, it is difficult to overestimate. And, following the rules of nutrition, the listed problems associated with an excess or deficiency of elements can always be avoided.
Cobalt and chromium salts
Mineral salts containing chromium ions play an important role in the regulation of insulin. The element is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, proteins, as well as in the process of glucose metabolism. A lack of chromium can cause an increase in the amount of cholesterol in the blood, and therefore increase the risk of stroke.
One of the components of vitamin B12is a cobalt ion. It takes part in the production of thyroid hormones, as well as fats, proteins and carbohydrates, activates enzymes.Cobalt struggles with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, removing cholesterol from the blood vessels. This element is responsible for the production of RNA and DNA, promotes the growth of bone tissue, activates the synthesis of hemoglobin, and is able to inhibit the development of cancer cells.
Athletes and vegetarians often have a deficiency of cobalt ions, which can lead to various disorders in the body: anemia, arrhythmias, vascular dystonia, memory disorders, etc. With vitamin B abuse12or in contact with this element in the production of an excess of cobalt in the body.
Salts of manganese, silicon and selenium
The three elements that are part of the group of trace elements also play an important role in maintaining the health of the body. So, manganese is involved in immune reactions, improves thought processes, stimulates tissue respiration and blood formation. The functions of mineral salts in which silicon is present are to impart strength and elasticity to the walls of blood vessels. Element selenium in microdoses brings great benefits to man. It is able to protect against cancer, supports the growth of the body, strengthens the immune system.With a lack of selenium, inflammations in the joints, weakness in the muscles are formed, the thyroid gland is disturbed, male strength is lost, visual acuity decreases. The daily requirement for this item is 400 micrograms.
What is included in this concept? It is a combination of the processes of absorption, assimilation, distribution, transformation and excretion of various substances. Mineral salts in the body create an internal environment with constant physicochemical properties, thereby ensuring the normal activity of cells and tissues.
Doing food in the digestive system, ions pass into the blood and lymph. The functions of mineral salts are to maintain the acid-base constancy of the blood, in the regulation of osmotic pressure in the cells, as well as in the intercellular fluid. Useful substances are involved in the formation of enzymes and in the process of blood clotting. Salts regulate the total amount of fluid in the body. The basis of osmoregulation is a potassium-sodium pump. Potassium ions accumulate inside the cells, and in their environment - sodium ions.Due to the difference of potentials, the redistribution of liquids occurs and thereby maintains the constancy of the osmotic pressure.
Salts are derived in three ways:
- Through the kidneys. In this way, the ions of potassium, iodine, sodium and chlorine are removed.
- Through the intestines. With the feces, salts of magnesium, calcium, iron and copper leave the body.
- Through the skin (along with sweat).
In order to avoid the retention of salts in the body, it is necessary to consume a sufficient amount of fluid.
Mineral metabolism disorders
The main causes of deviations are:
- Hereditary factors. In this case, the exchange of mineral salts can be expressed in such a phenomenon as salt sensitivity. The kidneys and adrenal glands in this violation produce substances that can disrupt the content of potassium and sodium in the walls of blood vessels, thereby causing water-salt imbalance.
- Unfavorable ecology.
- Eating excess salt with food.
- Poor quality food.
- Occupational hazard.
- Binge eating.
- Excessive use of tobacco and alcohol.
- Age violations.
Despite the small percentage in food, the role of mineral salts cannot be overestimated.Some of the ions are the building material of the skeleton, others are involved in the regulation of water-salt balance, others are involved in the accumulation and release of energy. A deficiency, as well as an excess of minerals, harms the body.
With the daily use of plant and animal food can not forget about water. Some foods, for example, seaweed, cereals, seafood, may improperly concentrate mineral salts in the cell, which is harmful to the body. For good digestibility, it is necessary to take breaks between taking the same salt for seven hours. A balanced diet is the key to the health of our body.