Main characteristics of the computer processor

The term "computing device" is nowknown to every schoolboy. This is not surprising, because even in hours you can find elements of computer systems. The ability to perform mathematical calculations is provided by special microcircuits with a high degree of integration of transistors - processors. The main characteristics of the microprocessor (CPU), in particular, determine the speed of its operations. That's why the owners of personal computers are so important to understand this issue.

Today we will consider what are the maincharacteristics of the processor and give recommendations that allow you to choose the best model yourself. The term "characteristics" includes both internal features and external constructive implementation. The main characteristics of the processor are, first of all, its bit depth; number of constituent elements; speed of operations, etc.

The notion of "capacity" indicates the number ofinformation that can be processed per clock (one operation). A binary bit is called a bit. 8 bits are 1 byte. Modern CPUs can handle 32 to 64 bits. Special types of processors can be characterized by any other digit capacity (4, 128, etc.). Now in computer technology, 64-bit computing is increasingly being used.

When choosing a CPU, you always need to consider thethe characteristics of the processor. Any computer owner knows that the speed of the entire system is largely determined by the clock speed of the microprocessor. On the market you can find identical models, differing from each other only by the frequency of work. The clock frequency indirectly indicates the number of simple operations performed by the chip per unit of time (usually a second). It is assigned by a special clock generator, then it is processed by electronic circuits (multiplied). Since this is a frequency, it is obvious that this parameter is measured in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz). So, all other things being equal, the 3 GHz model works faster than 2.5 GHz.

The main characteristics of the processor are notexhausted by bit and frequency. When choosing a CPU, you need to pay attention to the number of cores. The concept of "multi-core processor" appeared relatively recently, literally in front of one generation of users. Since it is physically impossible to infinitely increase the clock frequency in each new model, the manufacturers decided to combine several identical microprocessors in a single package. So there were multi-core CPUs. Following this, programs began to be optimized in a special way, so now it makes sense to purchase only multi-core models. Actually, even many mobile phones already use dual-core processors.

On the final speed to a great extentaffects the size of the cache. Unlike the usual RAM modules, the cache transistors are located directly in the same housing as the cores. This allows a high speed data exchange. There are three levels of cache memory: L1, L2 and L3 (shown in order of volume increase). It is believed that increasing each of them by 20% leads to an increase in performance by 50%. For example, if before the volume of L2 in 256 KB was considered impressive, now nobody surprises with the multi-megabyte cache of the second level. Choosing a CPU, you should prefer a model with a large cache. Note that L3 is not used in all models (while maintaining high speed calculations).

The following characteristic is a featurearchitecture. Defined by the developer, the specification indicates the code name of the line - Liano, Sandy Bridge, etc. So, each new generation of processors of the same manufacturer has a higher speed (other things being equal).

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