Long jump: the technique of execution. World record for long jump
After reading this article, you will learn how to properly perform a long jump with a run-up and from a place, as well as what records are currently set in these sports and what are the standards for high school students and the standards of the TRP. Let's start with the description of the jump from the run, as it is more popular today.
Run-up: what is needed to achieve a good result?
Despite the apparent ease of movement, the jump from the run in length makes a number of serious requirements. Without them, it will be impossible to achieve the desired result. The decisive factor in achieving good results in this kind of athletics is the high level of development of dexterity, jumping ability, strength and speed. The jumper is faced with the task of not only maximally accelerating by the moment of setting the foot, but also a more complicated requirement - to transform a part of the horizontal part into the vertical speed during the repulsion process. This requires a high level of development of strength and speed.Thanks to speed, it is possible to move in a horizontal plane as quickly as possible, and jumping ability expresses the ability to throw an athlete's body in a vertical plane.
Components of the jump
The long jump consists of the following four parts: takeoff, repulsion, flight phase and landing. The level of running fitness, as well as the ability of an athlete to gain maximum speed, determines the length of the run. Long jumps should be done by men with a takeoff run of no more than 40-45 m, and women - 30-35 m. The speed and its length increases with increasing fitness. The length of the run in children is significantly reduced. It equals 15-20 meters for younger students, if we talk about this type of athletics as long jumps. Standards for high school students are very different, as is the length of the run, which is 25-30 meters.
Two starting positions are used at the beginning of the run: 1) when at the control mark one athlete's foot is ahead of the other; 2) with a preliminary movement (light running or walking). With a gradual or rapidly increasing speed run.The technique of the long jump implies that the speed must be maximum by the moment of repulsion, the body of the jumper must be in an upright position and it is possible to proceed to repulsion without undue stress.
The main errors observed in the run-up technique can be considered the following: running "sitting" or with a strong tilt forward of the body, which leads to the pelvic abduction. This, in turn, reduces the quality of repulsion: there is a lack of pushing out of the body, excessive muscle tension and a small forward movement of the athlete’s legs. In the process of learning the technique of rhythmic and fast run, one should strive for the constancy of the length and number of run steps, while the run speed should remain constant and not slow down before repulsion. There should not be an excessive increase or decrease in the length of the last steps. Therefore, in the process of training, it will be advisable to use control marks on the runway.
The leg when pushing away is put on the bar. This is accomplished by a fast, sweeping movement from top to bottom, as well as backwards in relation to the body.In relation to the ground, the foot is always straight down and forward, with the extensor muscles being strained. Then, under the influence of inertia of body mass, the leg flexes in the joints, and then straightens it. The fly leg, together with the jerking straightening, is carried forward and upward from the thigh. The long jump continues with the fact that it is carried out to the side and a little back with the same name hand, the other - forward-up and somewhat inward. The swing arm extends slightly at the knee. Immediately after departure, the body is approximately in the same position as it was after the repulsion. Hands should be slightly lowered. They maintain the balance of the entire body. This provision is called "departure step". It lasts for more than a quarter of the entire length of the jump. After the flight in the step, the fly-hand goes down, then the jog pulls up to it, and the jumper's knees approach the chest.
When performing repulsion typical errors are the following: the wrong direction of the efforts of the athlete, which is caused by an incorrect tilt of the head (backward or forward) and the body at the momentwhen repulsion occurs; premature pulling up with a jumper jogging foot; a small amplitude of movements performed by free limbs, as well as an early regrouping of an athlete in flight, which is caused by excessive tension of his movements.
Jumper, landing, hands sent down and back. The athlete extends the legs in the knee joints and brings them forward as far as possible. The long jump ends with a landing: bending the legs in the joints, bending the trunk forward and, finally, leaving the pit or falling the athlete to the side.
An important role in achieving the best results is played, besides other elements, by the correct landing of the jumper. The improvement and assimilation of this element should be given considerable attention in technical training. It should be understood by proper landing that the completion of a flight in which the athlete touched the ground as far as possible ahead of the center of gravity of his body, but without falling back and losing balance. In this case, the flight speed is extinguished without sharp jolts and tremors. You should pay attention to the deep and soft landing in a pit of sand.
Three ways to land
There are 3 main methods of landing. The most common method is through deep squats. Another one - with the deflection of a deep squat, which is carried out with rolling through the socks by bringing forward the pelvis. The third method is considered to be very profitable - this is landing using a forward shot - to the side.
Three ways to make the jump
Long jumps with a running run can be carried out in the following ways, depending on the nature of the movements made in flight by the jumper: bending, legs bent, scissors. “Bending the legs” is a technique in which the athlete’s torso assumes an almost vertical position, his legs are bent, and the jumper's arms are extended forward and slightly down or up. In flight, the athlete fixes his position with bent legs. “Crouching” is a way in which long jumps from a running start are performed with the performance of a movement that resembles a run through the air. Spring, the body is in this upright position. Circular movements of the arms support the balance of the whole body, and also contribute to the rhythmic work done in the air with your legs.Making a jump using the “scissors” method, the athlete in the position of a step after takeoff changes the position of the legs, and then pulls up the limb that was behind after the change, followed by pushing both legs forward for landing, or he takes 2 full steps (the position of the lower limbs changes twice) and 1 added, while tightening the back leg.
The main task in carrying out all these methods is to maintain balance in flight, as well as to ensure the most favorable conditions for landing. Making the choice of the method of jumping, one should pay attention to the jumper's athletic fitness, features of physical development, as well as coordination of movements and strength qualities. Leading athletes are currently jumping with a run up to the length of the "scissors" method. This is explained by the fact that this method is a sort of natural continuation of the run. Its use contributes to a more continuous transition of the body into flight. However, to master this method, a lot of work is needed on mastering rhythmic and rapid running, combined with repulsion upwards.
In the process of learning it is recommended to master all these methods of body movement in flight.This is explained by the fact that knowledge of the main options for a jump helps to improve orientation in space and coordination. It is necessary to begin the study of these methods with repulsion from the ground, and only when making jumps with a full run-up, you can push off from the bar. It is necessary to follow the general rule that one should go from simple to complex. Therefore, it is recommended to first get acquainted with the easiest way to jump - "bending the legs."
It should be said that the sector for jumping is usually equipped with a pit (its length must be at least 10 meters, width - at least 2.75 meters, and depth - at least 0.5 meters). In the pit there is sand for landing, as well as a wooden bar for pushing away (its length is 1.21-1.22 cm, width - 19.8-20.2 cm, and thickness - 0.1 m). This bar is installed flush with the runway (width - 1.22 m, length - at least 40 m) and sand.
Attempts and result measurement
Athletes perform each attempt alternately (6 attempts in total). No more than one and a half minutes is given to the execution of each jump. The winner is determined by the best result, shown by him from all six attempts. Measuring tape measures the result.The zero mark is set at the point closest to the bar, which was left by any part of the athlete's body in the pit of sand. The result is measured in whole centimeters, with rounding going down.
We distinguish cases in which the jump does not count:
1) if the participant ran to the side of the bar or through it;
2) if he stepped on the measurement line;
3) if the athlete pushed off with two legs;
4) if he touched the ground to the pit during the jump;
5) if the jumper has applied a flip in a jump.
Lessons prior to learning the technique of jumping
Training in long jumps should begin with the following classes: jumps in running height, sprint, shot put. This will improve the overall physical shape of the athlete, as well as improve the level of strength and speed training involved. The ability to run fast is necessary to master the run. At the same time, the force necessary for a powerful repulsion should be developed. It is also desirable to perform individual jumps and special jumping exercises to achieve maximum occupational density.
Jump from the spot and its components
Long jumps from a place are mainly used as workouts. Nevertheless, competitions are held on them, as well as on the triple jump, performed from the spot (we will also tell about it). Long jumps, high jumps are also carried out as a control test that helps determine the strength and springiness of the legs.
The technique of jumping, performed from the scene, is divided into the following components:
- preparation for repulsion;
- immediate repulsion;
- The final stage - landing.
Technique jump from place
The athlete, carrying out preparations for repulsion, approaches the line from which it is made. He puts his feet to the width of his shoulders, or to some of her feet, after which he raises his hands up and back a little, bending at the same time in the back, as well as climbing his toes. Then smoothly, but at the same time rather quickly, the jumper lowers his arms in a downward-backward direction, dropping simultaneously to the whole foot, bending the hip and knee joints of the legs, leaning forward so that his shoulders are in front of the feet and the hip joint is above the toes.
Reverse hands should be slightly bent at the elbows.The athlete, without stopping in this position, goes directly to the repulsion. It is important to start it at that moment when the body of the person performing the jump is still falling down by inertia, that is, it itself is still moving downwards, but the legs are bending in the hip joints. At the same time, the hands are quickly and actively carried forward and slightly upward in the direction of the jump. After this, the legs in the knee joints become unbent, they are flexed in the ankle joints. The repulsion ends when the feet break away from the ground.
After that, the jumper straightens his entire body. It stretches like a string, and then bends at the hip and knee joints of the leg, and then pulls them up to the chest. In this case, the hands are retracted in the back-down direction, and then the athlete straightens his legs at the knee joints in order to bring his feet forward to make a touchdown. The jumper at the moment of touching the landing site with the legs actively pulls the arms forward, simultaneously bends the knee joints of the leg and pulls the pelvis to the landing site. This completes the flight phase. Must be elastic bending legs, run with resistance. The jumper after a stop is straightened.He takes two steps forward, and then leaves from the place of his landing. This is the end of the long jump.
Running from the place of triple jump
The technique of its implementation is divided into the following stages:
- 1st pushing athlete with two legs;
- its flight in the 1st step;
- 2nd repulsion;
- flight in the 2nd step;
- 3rd repulsion;
- and, finally, landing on both legs.
In the triple jump, the alternation of legs alternately takes place, that is, from both legs to the left, then to the right, again to the left and then to two. In the same way as in a jump from a place, pushing away from 2 legs is performed. After that, the athlete, bending the leg at the knee joint, brings it forward, the shin should be directed slightly forward or downward. The second leg of the athlete is delayed from behind, slightly bent at the same time at the knee joint (the so-called flight in step). Then the jumper puts on the ground in front of the leg "raking" staging. The second leg is simultaneously bred forward with a swinging movement, helping to push off with one foot.
Then the flight is repeated in a step, but on the other leg. The 3rd repulsion takes place in the same way. The jumper in the third flight pulls up to the swing foot, pushing it at the knee joint,and then performs a landing, bringing your knees closer to your chest (the landing itself is similar to that performed in jumping from a spot).
World record for long jump
Long jump, as you know, is an Olympic sport. Athletes for a long time could not set a new world record for long jump. Back in 1991, Mike Powell became the record holder, jumping to Tokyo from a run in the length of 8.95 m. Among women, the new world record did not appear even longer. Galina Chistyakova from the USSR jumped on June 11, 1988 to 7.52 m. Until now, both of these results are the best, since that time nobody has managed to set a new world record.
Long jump with a seat also has its champions. The modern long jump record belongs to Chen Hsi Ping, a Chinese athlete. He jumped in Beijing in January 2010 at 4 meters 8 cm. This exercise was once part of the program of the Olympic Games. Outside of the competition was then Ray Urey, an American. He set the world record for the long jump from the spot, jumping to 3.47 meters. He also managed to jump a height of 1.65 m. This athlete won a victory at three Olympiads, held in 1900, 1904 and 1908.
School standards and standards of the TRP for long jump
For high school students, the following guidelines for running jumps are established. For girls:
- Grade 10: 360 cm for the top five, 340 for the four and 300 for the top three;
- Grade 11: 380 - to the top five, 340 - to the four and 310 - to the top three.
For boys, they are as follows:
- Grade 10: 440 - to the top five, 400 - to the top four and 340 - to the top three;
- Grade 11: 460 - to the top five, 420 - to the top four, and 370 - to the top three.
TRP standards provide for long jumps from the spot. The standards for men aged 18 to 24 are 215 (bronze badge), 230 (silver), 240 (gold). In the age category from 25 to 29 years old, for comparison, 225 is bronze, 230 is silver and 240 is gold. For girls from 18 to 24 years old - 170, 180 and 195, respectively, between the ages of 25 to 29 years old - 165, 175 and 190. Long distance jumps should be made at this distance. Standards were given only to form some idea of what distance you need to be able to jump. The rules of the TRP also imply other age categories.