Livestock industries. Livestock development. Types of livestock
Animal husbandry is the second most important (after crop production) branch of agriculture in Russia. The well-being of the country as a whole depends largely on how well it is developed. More recently, animal husbandry in Russia was considered unprofitable. Today, thanks to the introduction of new technologies into production, the situation has changed significantly for the better. Livestock is divided into several important industries and species. We will talk about them in the article.
A bit of history
It is believed that for the first time people began to domesticate and breed wild animals and, accordingly, receive animal products in the Mesolithic, that is, in the 12th millennium BC. er The greatest development of this kind of activity was somewhat later - in the Neolithic. Archaeologists have found evidence of the presence of livestock in those times in the Nile area, as well as the Tigris and Euphrates.Residents of the cities of ancient Egypt were engaged in the breeding of cattle and small ruminants, pigs and camels. Geese, ducks and even cranes were also partially domesticated. A little later horses appeared in this ancient state.
The development of livestock in the area of the Tigris and Euphrates took place almost along the same lines as in Egypt. Somewhat later, this type of economic activity developed in India, China and the Iranian plateau. At the moment, about 40 species of animals have been domesticated by humans.
There are many agricultural breeds. Almost every one of them has its own livestock industry. The most significant in our country are:
- Pig production. The main products of this livestock industry are meat and lard.
- Horse breeding. Of great importance for the national economy is both breeding horses, and productive, as well as sports.
- Cattle breeding. Breeding cattle at the moment - the main branch of animal husbandry. After all, the degree of provision of the population with basic foodstuffs, such as milk and meat, depends on how developed this area is.Breeding small ruminants is also very important. From this area of animal husbandry, such spheres of the national economy as food (meat, milk) and light (woolen clothes and household items) industry are in direct dependence.
- Poultry farming. This industry is responsible for providing the population with such important foods as eggs, meat, feathers and feathers.
- Fur farming. Breeding nutria, mink, arctic foxes, etc. allows you to get skins for sewing outerwear, hats, accessories and other things.
- Beekeeping. Honey, wax, royal jelly are also more than necessary products.
These are the main branches of animal husbandry. In addition to them, in our country, reindeer breeding, fish farming, breeding of camels are also developed.
Main types of livestock products
No country in the world can do without cattle breeding as part of the national economy. Products of this branch of animal husbandry can be divided into two main types:
- Obtained in the actual breeding process. These include eggs, milk, wool.
- Obtained by cultivation for slaughter (meat, liver, etc.).
Cattle breeding technology
The profitability of such an industry as livestock in Russia and in any other country depends on several factors:
- Efficacy of feeding. A prerequisite is the diversity of the diet and its usefulness for a set of amino acids, protein and vitamins. With a shortage of trace elements there is a need to use all sorts of additives.
- Conditions of detention. This factor also has a significant impact on dairy and beef cattle breeding. Cattle should be provided with good conditions for development and growth.
- Competent breeding work. Currently, one of the main conditions for its success is the import of pedigree animals from abroad.
- Permanent veterinary control. It is important to carry out preventive measures aimed at reducing the loss of livestock due to various kinds of diseases. According to the regulations, vaccinations should be made to animals in a necessary and timely manner.
Such branches of agriculture as dairy and meat and dairy cattle breeding, in terms of profitability, are directly dependent on crop production.The main prerequisite for the successful development of farms of this type is the availability of high-quality food supply. For each age and sex group of animals, special rations are developed:
- When feeding dry cows and heifers, it is important first of all to prepare them for subsequent lactation. Therefore, in the diet of such animals include high-quality feed - hay, silage, and root crops. In the summer they are provided with good pastures and top dressing.
- For dairy cows, it is important to develop optimal feeding rates that take into account the needs of animals in proteins, vitamins, metabolic energy, etc.
- The diet of producers should ensure the preservation of health and reproductive abilities. They feed such animals especially densely.
Conditions of detention
Dairy, meat and dairy cattle breeding is a sub-industry, the profitability of which largely depends on the correct choice of technology for keeping animals. Methods of growing cattle at the moment there are several:
- On tethered content. In this case, in the stall period, each animal is provided with its own pen.The leash restricts its movement, but at the same time it can freely lie, stand, eat food. Milking in this case is performed directly in the stall.
- On loose housing content. This technology is more often used in dairy cattle breeding. Free-range animals at any time of the day have the opportunity to access water bowls and feeders, as well as recreation facilities.
- In summer, pasture maintenance is practiced. Usually, animals are expelled to fields rich in herbs, located near watering places: streams, lakes and rivers.
Livestock agriculture can only successfully develop in the case of competent breeding. Recently, a lot of producers of highly productive breeds from Europe were brought to our country. This was possible primarily due to the increase in state subsidies. Due to this state of affairs at the moment, a steady upward trend in the number of cattle has emerged in the country. Only in 2014, the all-Russian herd increased by more than 18%.
The absence of losses associated with the death of cattle in cattle breeding industries has a tremendous impact in terms of profitability. The state of animal health, and therefore the growth of livestock, is directly dependent on compliance with the following rules:
- Farms must be located in elevated, unfilled areas.
- In those rooms where cattle contain, the optimum microclimate should be created.
- The premises of the livestock complex should be kept clean. Sanitary processing is carried out at least once a week.
- A complex of veterinary and preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk and eliminating the occurrence of infectious diseases should be developed. All animals on the farm should be promptly vaccinated. Each complex should have a quarantine pen.
Peculiarities of small cattle breeding
The livestock industry for breeding large and small cattle in terms of technology for the maintenance of animals are very similar. Growing small individuals has only the peculiarity that in this case, the main products of production, in addition to meat, are wool and down.
Shearing of small ruminants is carried out in compliance with the following rules:
- Carry out this procedure only in dry weather.
- After shearing animals should be kept in warm pens for at least 15-20 days.
- The room in which this procedure is performed must comply with all sanitary standards.
- When using electric clippers, follow the relevant safety guidelines.
- Animals after removing the wool inspect for cuts and, if necessary, carry out disinfecting treatment.
Pig breeding as a livestock industry
This area of agriculture is currently also considered to be quite profitable. Pig production as a business in our country is developed quite well. Piglets are cultivated both in private farmsteads and on farms and large industrial complexes. The most profitable at the moment is considered a technological scheme of pig breeding with a complete cycle. This is the name of the process by which piglets are received, raised and slaughtered in the same farm. In this case, only two ways of keeping animals can be practiced:
- Vygulny. This technology is most often used in regions with a warm climate. At the same time in the farms can be used machine tools and free-flowing methods. In the first case, pigs are kept in machine tools and released for walking on specially designated areas. When free-keeping animals can enter the machines and out of them on their own initiative.
- Ditchless. In this case, the animals are constantly kept in individual machines or in small groups in specially designated areas.
As well as cattle breeding, besides the optimal conditions of housing, pig breeding as a business depends, inter alia, on the efficiency of feeding, as well as on how competently the breeding work will be carried out. It is also important to carry out preventive measures aimed at eliminating the death of animals as a result of infection.
Livestock breeding branches for poultry are currently also developing dynamically. The main goal in this case, of course, is to obtain dietary meat and eggs. A related product is considered to be down and feather.At the moment, in such farms the following types of birds can be bred:
- Chickens. Their cultivation is the most popular area of the poultry industry. Tribal work in this case is carried out mainly in terms of obtaining high-yielding crosses. There are only two main areas of chicken farming - egg and meat. The breeding of this bird is practiced both on private farms, and on small farms and large poultry farms.
- Geese Their cultivation is also considered quite profitable business. Development of the ration of geese does not require the use and implementation of any special technologies, just like the conditions of detention. The main food for this bird is grass, and it can be kept in small rooms. Of course, when grown in this case, certain sanitary standards should also be observed. Geese, as well as chickens, are bred both at home plots and at large poultry farms.
- Turkeys This bird in our country is bred mainly in personal plots of land. The technology of its cultivation remains traditional and unchanged for more than one century.
In addition to these most common types of domestic poultry, guinea fowls, quails, songbirds, decorative birds and even ostriches are bred in Russia.However, only individual enthusiasts are engaged in such activities, finding it interesting and profitable. On an industrial scale, these types of birds in our country are not bred.
Horse breeding in Russia
The importance of this livestock industry is also difficult to overestimate. It can be classified into two main areas:
- Breeding horse breeding. His development in Russia is now given maximum attention. Currently, there are about 70 breeding plants in the country, in which more than 30 horse breeds are bred. Today, livestock breeding is one of the priority areas of agriculture.
- Herd meat horse breeding. This branch of animal husbandry has been developed mainly in those regions where it is traditional.
- Horse breeding dairy. Often combined with meat. The high profitability of dairy horse breeding is primarily associated with the high cost of koumiss.
- Sport horse breeding. In this case, animals are bred for participation in competitions.
Pedigree horse breeding in Russia is not too dynamic at the moment, mainly due to the lack of a domestic market for breeding animals,obsolescence of technical equipment of factories and low organization of business management.
Horse breeding technology
In modern farms there are only three main ways of keeping horses:
- Year-round pasture. This is the most promising and productive method. In this case, caring for animals comes down mainly to changing pastures, veterinary treatment and protection.
- Shed base. This method is usually used for breeding horses. In this case, the animals are kept on a leash and driven out to pastures only in summer.
- Cultural herd. This technology is usually used when keeping breeding animals.
The technology of animal breeding on the skins also has a lot of its nuances. In this case, the priority task is to ensure healthy and comfortable living conditions for the animals. Fur livestock in Russia is currently very well developed. The farms use three main technologies for keeping animals:
- Extracellular This method is usually used on small farms when breeding animals such as arctic foxes, foxes, ferrets, muskrats and nutria.
- Content in the sheds. So called special sheds with a dual roof and a wide aisle.
- Indoors in cages. This method in our country has recently become more and more common.
Such livestock sectors of agriculture, such as animal breeding, pig breeding and cattle breeding, of course, play a more than prominent role in the development of the Russian economy. However, one should not underestimate the values of smaller areas, such as beekeeping, fish farming, reindeer breeding, etc. As regards the first, the negative processes affecting society during the period of perestroika, fortunately, had no effect at all. In the early 1990s, there was actually a significant decrease in the number of bee colonies. However, soon the recession slowed down, and then this indicator completely stabilized and remained unchanged (3 million families) for several years. At the moment, more than 5 thousand farms and about 300 thousand lovers are engaged in beekeeping in Russia.
The above types of livestock are the most important sectors of agriculture in our country.The degree of provision of the population with food depends on how well they develop. Increasing the profitability of cattle, beekeeping, poultry and pig farms directly depends on the dynamics of the introduction of new technologies of breeding, breeding and maintenance of animals.