Hemophilus bacillus: analysis, symptoms, treatment, prevention
Hemophilic bacillus is an infectious disease during which the central nervous system is affected. It has a common name - influenza. In addition, the infection can penetrate into other organs. A person may feel weakness or pain, fever, shortness of breath. This is quite a dangerous disease, as it has many types.
How does it manifest itself?
Symptoms of a hemophilus bacillus are headache and sore throat, cough, fever. The infection is spread by airborne droplets. The source of this infection is the only person. Most often, the infection is common among children (1.5-5 years). As a result of the research, it was revealed that almost 50% of the children are carriers of this stick. The disease can worsen in spring and winter. Recently, the infection has spread noticeably among the elderly.
Risk groups are:
- children from 2 years;
- children from 3 to 5 years;
- aged people;
- people with low socioeconomic status.
A hemophilic bacillus in the throat affects people with immune deficiency. Another method of transmission is contact with various objects, such as toys or bedding. There are 6 different types of infection. They differ as: a, b, c, d, e, f.
In children aged about 6 years, it is often the species b (b) that is the most “harmful” type of infection. The danger of the disease is that the bacterium can live asymptomatically in the human body for a long time. It is impossible to determine the stage of incubation, since it depends on how the pathology spreads. As already mentioned, the infection affects the respiratory system. There are cases when the patient has meningitis, pneumonia. At the time of the first symptoms of acute respiratory infections. Along with pneumonia, inflammatory processes are reflected in the ear, and ailment appears on the eyes and cheeks. In modern medicine there is a vaccination against this infection. This vaccination is carried out among children from 3 years.
It is believed that, reaching 5 years old, the child does not need a vaccine against hemophilic infection.The immunity of children in this age group itself fights with its pathogen.
It should be noted that vaccination is quite possible among adults. The effect of the product is more than 90%, protective antibodies last almost 4 years. In addition to vaccination, other measures are provided, such as treatment, special nutrition. The doctor prescribes drugs to strengthen the immune system and vitamins. Unfortunately, this infection is difficult to treat. Even antibiotics are often powerless against Hemophilus sticks.
How long the incubation period can last is quite difficult to answer, but, according to the professor, from the moment a person became infected, two or three days pass before the first symptoms appear. Symptoms may vary. It depends on the form in which the influenza infection passes. But there are several characteristics that can be observed in any of the species. Such criteria are presented as follows:
- temperature increase up to forty degrees;
- runny nose and nasal congestion;
- sore throat and sore throat;
- unpleasant sensation that may occur when swallowing saliva;
- cough with sputum;
- constant drowsiness;
- weakness and general malaise.
Symptoms for various diseases
With the development of otitis, the general symptoms will only increase:
- throbbing pain in the ear;
- hearing loss;
- excretion of fluid, perhaps, take pus from the ear canal.
If sinusitis or an inflammatory process develops in the paranasal sinus, the baby or adult may develop:
- unpleasant sensation in the nose, nose or near the eye;
- abundant clear or purulent discharge from the nose;
- chronic nasal disease.
Inflammatory process on the skin and in fat deposits will proceed as follows:
- swelling of the cheeks and near the eyes;
- the skin becomes in some places swollen blue-red hues;
- cellulite appears in the face and neck - in infants, in the legs and arms - in children after five years.
- big chill;
- blue skin;
- hard breath;
- large salivation.
Pneumonia, which has arisen due to Hemophilus sticks, may have a similar characteristic:
- severe chest pain;
- cough, which can lead to purulent sputum discharge.
With exacerbation of meningitis, the main symptom may be:
- rumbling in the stomach;
- bowel disorder;
- profuse vomiting;
- a rise in temperature of up to forty one degrees;
- temporary loss of consciousness;
- convulsive seizures.
Such signs can lead to death, mainly in children. Meningitis and the clinical picture of osteomyelitis look like this:
- loss of consciousness;
- severe pain in the limbs;
- tissue swelling in the area where the infection began;
- pathological redness of the skin.
Symptoms of septicemia:
- splenomegaly, or an enlarged spleen;
- low blood pressure;
- rapid heartbeat, hemorrhage appears on the arm, leg and face.
Diagnostics and analyzes
For correct treatment, it is necessary not only to establish the diagnosis, but also to identify what caused the infection. Diagnosis of diseases caused by hemophilic bacilli, is carried out in several stages. We can distinguish the following:
- It is necessary to analyze the patient's complaints and make a history of the disease. It is established how long the temperature change has been recorded, how long the runny nose, pain and sore throat are.
- During the general examination of the patient revealed redness in the throat, inflammation of the epiglottis, etc.
- Hemophilus bacillus assays. Diagnosis of bacteriological seeding is required. Depending on the disease, different materials are required for analysis: otitis involves taking pus in case of meningitis, liquor, sputum is required for research in bronchitis and pneumonia, if the upper respiratory tract is affected, mucus is needed. In addition, the patient is prescribed a general blood and urine test.
- Serological diagnosis is carried out to determine in the patient's blood antibodies to the pathogen. It is also necessary to identify the DNA of the initiator of the disease in sputum or plasma.
How to treat hemophilic wand?
It is not possible to treat the disease at home, especially if it is planned to use folk methods for this. When symptoms appear, it is necessary to conduct a full examination, pass all the necessary tests and undergo some other diagnostic methods.
Treatment of hemophilus bacilli in the shed in a child is carried out with etiotropic antibiotics that act on each type of virus (for example, Levomycetin, Emulsil, etc.).For a more severe form of the disease, antibacterial drugs should be prescribed with a wide spectrum of action.
Etiotropic antibiotic therapy is used before laboratory studies, which makes it possible to eliminate the development of complications.
In case of a complicated infection for the treatment of hemophilus bacilli in adults, doctors usually prescribe the following classes of antibiotics:
Treatment of hemophilus bacilli in children should be prescribed in accordance with the form of the disease, eliminate both signs of the disease and its consequences, as well as eradicate the cause in order to avoid re-infection. If phlegmon is formed and a large amount of pus accumulates, surgical intervention is indicated.
With a moderate course of the disease, treatment takes at least 2 weeks. Complicated infection is treated for about 1.5 months. For the prevention of the appearance of a hemophilus bacillus in a child, it is recommended to vaccinate up to 5 years.
Untimely seeking medical help or resistancemicroorganisms for treatment may cause the development of complications, including:
- infectious toxic shock;
- purulent inflammations;
- during pregnancy: malformations of the newborn;
Most often, the course of diseases caused by Hemophilus bacillus, takes place in the form of a normal respiratory infection with the manifestation of the corresponding symptoms. Nevertheless, the manifestation of the disease is also possible in more severe forms:
- Purulent meningitis is the hardest of the forms. It is poorly amenable to drug therapy, since the causative agent of the disease produces the production of enzymes, due to which hemophilic bacilli lose sensitivity to many of the antibiotics. High mortality in this form of the disease.
- Pneumonia caused by hemophilic bacilli can provoke complications from organs such as the lungs and the heart. The course of the disease in this case is difficult.
- Up to 50% of purulent infectious diseases of the nose, throat, and ear are associated with a hemophilic rod, most commonly inflammation of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses.
- Purulent arthritis associated with osteomyelitis may also occur due to hemophilic infection.
Infection with hemophilus influenza is a fairly dangerous illness, difficult to treat, so it is much better to prevent the occurrence of a hemophilus bacillus than to continue to treat it.
To prevent the occurrence of the disease, so-called secondary and primary prophylaxis is performed.
- Primary. This method is to increase the level of immunity by introducing into the patient's body a weakened virus, which allows the body to produce the necessary antibodies to combat it. In other words, primary prevention is vaccination.
- Secondary. These preventive measures are assigned to contact persons. Children up to the age of four are prescribed Rifampicin. The dosage is calculated based on the weight of the patient - ten milligrams of the antibiotic accounts for one kilogram of weight. Take once a day. The course of treatment takes four days.
Vaccination is given to children under five years of age, as well as the elderly, since both groups are characterized by weakened immunity. It is extremely effective - this is indicated by statistics. In countries where vaccination is compulsory, the incidence has declined by ninety percent.It is also worth noting that current scientists were able to achieve the so-called effect of revaccination - that is, the introduction of a vaccine entails not only increased production of antibodies, but also their multiple increase. Therefore, vaccinations should not be avoided.
Preparations for vaccination
For this procedure, you must use drugs such as:
- "Pentax". The price of vaccination is six thousand rubles.
- Hiberix. For this medicine you need to pay three and a half thousand rubles.
- "Infanrix Hex". The cost of such a vaccine is equal to seven thousand five hundred rubles.
How is the vaccination performed?
It should be borne in mind that vaccinations are carried out several times. So:
- The first vaccine is introduced into the body of a child at three months of age.
- The next vaccination is carried out on reaching five months.
- The penultimate time this happens in six months.
- The final vaccination (or revaccination) is carried out by a doctor in one and a half years of the child.