Fauvism in painting: features of the new trend
The end of XIX - XX centuries. - the time of the emergence of new, cardinally non-classical trends in art, which both fascinated and shocked the public at the same time. One of these striking and distinctive trends was Fauvism.
The history of the direction
It is believed that it was Fauvism, and not the preceding impressionism, that became the starting point for the destruction of traditional painting. I must say, most of the future Fauves learned from exemplary craftsmen: Eugene Career, Gustav Moreau, Leon Bonn, copied exemplary classic works in the Louvre.
Fauvism in painting began with the occasional meeting of Maurice Vlaminck and Andre Derain. Conversation, the artists learned that they both delighted with the work of Van Gogh and both very dissatisfied with the state of affairs in art. This view Vlaminck could be explained by the fact that he did not receive, in contrast to Andre, a classical art education and had never even been in the Louvre.Derain, although he was the opposite of the interlocutor, also believed that realistic painting was already in decline, and the future was behind new art.
Then, in 1901, they suggested that painting should not blindly copy the object of the image, even though it is still compressed by the classical paradigm. The opinion of friends was picked up by other artists, in whose head similar thoughts were in their heads.
So what is so original direction of painting Fauvism? Many art critics find in it echoes of the influence of Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Delacroix, the Impressionists (in particular Monet) and, of course, Van Gogh, which is natural, since the Fauvists could not create and develop in a vacuum. But Fauvism in painting has its original, innovative features:
- The most important thing: the picture should not be a "slave" of reality - it is independent of the subject matter. Its essence is a combination of colors, lines, spots, and not similar to the depicted object.
- The protagonist of the creation - the color, clean and bright. Hence, the “boiling” paints and contrasting colors: green and red, yellow and purple, blue and orange.Representatives of Fauvism in painting called them "primary elements" that can excite human feelings to the very depths of the soul.
- The application of paint with strokes of different widths (sometimes even with large stains), the use of lines, which radically distinguished them from the impressionists, who loved small brush strokes and do not accept anything sharply geometric.
- Since there was strongly denied a clear correspondence of the depicted reality, the objects loomed deformed, and the silhouettes - extremely generalized. The linear and aerial perspective was also not held in high esteem by the Fauves.
- As a result, the fauvic picture is to some extent a kind of arabesque, bright, cheerful, and far from the usual reality.
Fauvism in painting: artists
The ideas of Vlaminck and Derain were supported by a large group of young artists. We list their most prominent representatives:
- Henri Matisse;
- Henri Mangen;
- Jean Puy;
- Otho Fries;
- Georges Rouault;
- Louis Walt;
- Charles Comouin;
- Georges Braque;
- Albert Macke;
- Raoul Dufy;
- Kes van Dongen et al.
Henri Matisse became the inspirer and the called leader of the current. Let us dwell on this extraordinary person.
Fauvism in painting: Matisse
Henri Matisse was not only an innovator - he constantly rethought the past of art. He believed that the color itself is already full and self-sufficient, therefore, to directly link it with the object is superfluous: "When I write green, I do not write grass, and when I write in blue, I do not write sky". He and his followers denied the confusion of colors, even the slightest hint of the contour of objects — only pure and bright factory colors.
Matisse taught his students to paint pictures "innocently," as little children do. Namely - to transfer to the canvas your first impression about the image. Only such an approach, in his opinion, opened the way to "pure art".
At the same time, he deeply respected the old masters and often used their techniques in his works. Only in the painting by Matisse they became Fauvist, remade according to the laws of his world.
Many art critics, as well as followers of Henri Matisse, distinguish his brushstroke: the master carefully varied the thickness of paint application, which is why here and there the canvas was visible in the gaps, which created a wonderful combination - it seemed that the color in the picture was "breathing." He also belongs to the invention of the new technique of painting - decoupage, "painting with scissors". This brought the work to simplify the object and its geometric shapes to a new level.
Matisse never spilled his own emotions into his work. When he created, he turned away from the world, from society - from everything around him. For the artist, there was only one canvas in the entire universe.
Fauvism and society
The first Fauvist exhibition happened in 1905 in the Parisian Autumn season. New artists then simply stunned the sophisticated public. Since in the hall where innovators were exhibited, a “decent” neoclassical sculpture was also exhibited, then influential French critic and art historian Louis Voksel gave her the phrase: “Donatello among wild animals”.
The caustic remark was picked up by the artists - Matisse suggested that his followers call themselves: Fauvists are wild (french "les fauves").
But many connoisseurs of art, on the contrary, highly appreciated the new creations, in particular, Russian collectors Sergey Schukin and Ivan Morozov. Therefore, by the way, in the Hermitage you can see an extensive exposition of the Fauvist style.
Sunset Fauvism and his new followers
Life direction was rapidly short - the last exhibition of the Fauves was held in 1908. Matisse, Marquet and Dufy after this, each began to develop their own individual vision of Fauvism, other artists changed their views on cubism, expressionism, other directions.
Fauvism in painting on this did not disappear: its echoes can be seen in the works of abstractionists, the "new wild" (1950-1960), in the Russian "blue rose" and "jack of diamonds".
Fauvism preached the independence of the picture and the whole of art from reality. His innovation also consisted in the fact that it was an absolutely politically neutral art, which rejected various documentation and other artistic manifestations besides pure painting.