Concrete block in foundation construction
Concrete block has high strength and is resistant to weathering, so it is widely used in all types and stages of construction from the foundation to the construction of walls.
For the construction of the foundation there are many ways and materials. The fastest and most affordable method is to use ready-made concrete blocks. The use of such material allows for a short time to form a strong and high-quality foundation.
- To transport a concrete block is many times cheaper than the same amount of bricks (the volume and weight of the blocks are lower).
- Fast erection process. This is due to the large size of concrete blocks (compared to brick).
- Less sand and cement. Blocks are stacked on a thin layer of solution.
- Hollow blocks have much greater thermal insulation than brick, which will save on heating.
- Low weight allows not to overload the foundation (allowed to be used in high-rise construction).
Concrete foundation blocks
Foundation concrete blocks made from heavy concrete are the main material in the construction of strip foundations and socles. Concrete blocks for the foundation have increased strength and are successfully used as supporting or supporting structures. In addition, they have excellent heat and waterproofing, and modern equipment allows to produce this material of the desired shape and size.
Concrete blocks for the foundation are divided into three types:
- Foundation blocks wall (FBS): are one of the most common building materials. This material is successfully used in low-rise and high-rise construction. Concrete wall blocks suitable for the construction of walls, basements, basements, extensions and garages.
- Hollow core blocks (FBP): used for the construction of strip and prefabricated monolithic foundations for machines and crushing and rolling equipment.
- Unified perforated blocks (UDB): empty channels can be reinforced reinforcing cage and poured concrete. Used in the construction of panel buildings and in places of high dynamic load.
Production of wall blocks
The foundation blocks are ready-made reinforced concrete products manufactured at concrete goods factories. As a rule, such production takes place at large enterprises, and qualified personnel supervise all phases of work. As a result, the quality of the produced concrete is an order of magnitude higher than when pouring the foundation itself. Factory technologists can choose a concrete compounding, based on operating conditions and climate, and laying a high-quality reinforcement cage (if required by the process) will give the product the necessary strength.
Among other things, mass production helps to keep a reasonable price for a concrete block. Special technologies and additives added to the solution give the product frost resistance and prevent cracking. When self-pouring the foundation there is the likelihood of cracking.
According to GOST standards, for a foundation concrete block there are standard dimensions and dimensions: length - from 60 to 120 cm, width from 30 to 60 cm, height - 30 and 60 cm. In practice, there are completely different concrete blocks. Sizes may vary by manufacturer.For example, from a block of 20x20x40 cm, you can build a strip foundation on your own, because its weight is small.
The technology of building a foundation of blocks
- First, excavation work is carried out on the arrangement of the pit. It should be trapezoidal, and the bottom should correspond to the size of the foundation.
- The next step will be the preparation of a sand and gravel pad. It serves to improve the bearing and drainage capabilities of the main ground. At this stage, bring all the trenches of communications.
- After completion of work on leveling the bottom of the pit, you can start building the base of the foundation. This is a crucial moment, as the supporting foundation of the whole house is being built. For the construction of a lightly loaded base, you can use a T-block, on top of which a sand-cement concrete block is placed. Loaded structures are built using a different technology, it is better to entrust their erection to experienced specialists.
- The next step is the construction of the foundation tape. The technological process depends on the type of blocks used in the sole. In all cases, before laying the first row of blocks, a layer of bonding mortar is applied on the upper edge of the base. Small blocks are stacked by hand, and large blocks - with a winch.The ends of the seams filled with cement and reinforced if necessary.
- After the construction of the tape, the entire structure is poured with a reinforcement screed.